September 28, 2021

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Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

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Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (H Wang PhD, Prof M Naghavi PhD, C Allen BA, R M Barber BS, A Carter BS, D C Casey BA, F J Charlson PhD, A Z Chen BS, M M Coates MPH, M Coggeshall BA, Prof L Dandona MD, D J Dicker BS, H E Erskine PhD, A J Ferrari PhD, C Fitzmaurice MD, K Foreman PhD, M H Forouzanfar PhD, M S Fraser BA, N Fullman MPH, E M Goldberg BS, N Graetz MPH, J A Haagsma PhD, Prof S I Hay DSc, C Huynh BA, C O Johnson PhD, N J Kassebaum MD, X R Kulikoff BA, M Kutz BS, H H Kyu PhD, H J Larson PhD, J Leung PhD, Prof S S Lim PhD, M Lind BS, Prof R Lozano MD, N Marquez BS, J Mikesell BS, Prof A H Mokdad PhD, M D Mooney BS, G Nguyen MPH, E Nsoesie PhD, D M Pigott DPhil, C Pinho BA, G A Roth MD, L Sandar BS, N Silpakit BS, A Sligar MPH, R J D Sorensen MPH, J Stanaway PhD, C Steiner MPH, S Teeple BA, B A Thomas MD, C Troeger MPH, A VanderZanden MSc, Prof S E Vollset DrPH, V Wanga MS, Prof H A Whiteford PhD, T Wolock MPH, L Zoeckler BA, T Achoki MD, A Afshin MD, L T Alexander BA, G M Anderson MSEE, B Bell MLIS, S Biryukov BS, J D Blore PhD, A Brown MA, J Brown MAIS, K Cercy BS, A Chew ND, A J Cohen DSc, F Daoud BS, E Dossou BS, K Estep MPA, A Flaxman PhD, J Friedman BA, J Frostad MPH, W W Godwin BS, J Hancock MLS, L Kemmer PhD, I A Khalil MD, J Leung PhD, P Y Liu BA, F Masiye PhD, A Millear BA, M Mirarefin MPH, A Misganaw PhD, M Moradi-Lakeh MD, K Morgan MLIS, M Ng PhD, A Pain MPH, J Quame-Amaglo MA, P Rao MPH, M B Reitsma BS, K A Shackelford BA, P Sur BA, J A Wagner BS, Prof T Vos PhD, Prof A D Lopez PhD, Prof C J L Murray DPhil), Harborview/UW Medicine (R G Ellenbogen MD), Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center (C N Mock PhD, D A Quistberg PhD), Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine (D A Quistberg PhD), University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA (Prof B O Anderson MD, C D Blosser MD, N D Futran MD, S R Heckbert MD, P N Jensen PhD, T J Montine PhD, D L Tirschwell MD, D A Watkins MD); Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health (Prof Z A Bhutta PhD), Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan (M I Nisar MSc); Centre for Global Child Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada (Prof Z A Bhutta PhD, N Akseer MSc); School of Public Health (F J Charlson PhD, H E Erskine PhD, A J Ferrari PhD, Prof H A Whiteford PhD, N K M Alam MPH, L D Knibbs PhD, J Leung PhD), School of Dentistry (Prof R Lalloo PhD), University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia (H N Gouda PhD, Prof J J McGrath MD); Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, Brisbane, QLD, Australia (F J Charlson PhD, H E Erskine PhD, Prof H A Whiteford PhD, J Leung PhD); Centre for Control of Chronic Conditions (P Jeemon PhD), Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi, India (Prof L Dandona MD, R Dandona PhD, G A Kumar PhD); Department of Zoology (P W Gething PhD), NIHR Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Centre (Prof C Cooper FMedSci), Clinical Trial Service Unit (S C Darby PhD), Nuffield Department of Medicine (A Deribew PhD), Oxford Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery (Prof S I HayDSc), University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (R Ali FRCP, D A Bennett PhD, Prof V Jha DM, K Rahimi DM); Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands (J A Haagsma PhD); Centre for Research & Action in Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia (Y Kinfu PhD); Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology (H J Larson PhD), London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK (I D A Faghmous MPH, S M Langan PhD, Prof M McKee DSc, Prof G V S Murthy MD, Prof N Pearce PhD, B Roberts PhD); National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico (Prof R Lozano MD, I R Campos-Nonato PhD, J C Campuzano PhD, H Gomez-Dantes MSc, I B Heredia-Pi PhD, F Mejia-Rodriguez MD, J C Montañez Hernandez MSc, P Montero MS, M J Rios Blancas MPH, Prof E E Servan-Mori MSc, S Villalpando PhD); National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention (L Duan MD, S Liu PhD, Prof L Wang MD, P Ye MPH), Chinese Center for Disease Control, Beijing, China (Prof X Liang MD, Prof S Yu PhD); Center for Translation Research and Implementation Science, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA (G A Mensah MD); Department of Global Health and Population (Prof J A Salomon PhD), Department of Nutrition (A L Thorne-Lyman ScD), Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health (O N Ajala MD, Prof T Bärnighausen MD, I R Campos-Nonato PhD, E L Ding ScD, M S Farvid PhD, G R Wagner MD), Department of Epidemiology, Channing Division of Network Medicine (P James ScD), Brigham & Women’s Hospital (P James ScD), Harvard Medical School (M Osman MD, M G Shrime MD), Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA (J R A Fitchett MD); Centre for Disease Burden (Prof S E Vollset DrPH, A K Knudsen PhD), Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway (C L Ellingsen MD, N H Krog PhD, M Savic PhD); Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care (Prof S E Vollset DrPH, A K Knudsen PhD), University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway (A D Hailu MPH, Prof O F Norheim PhD); Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia (K H Abate MS, T T Gebrehiwot MPH, A T Gebremedhin MPH); La Sapienza, University of Rome, Rome, Italy (C Abbafati PhD); Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA (Prof K M Abbas PhD); Department of Neurology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt (Prof F Abd-Allah MD); School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences (S F Abera MSc), School of Public Health (Y A Melaku MPH), College of Health Sciences (F H Tesfay MPH), Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia (Prof G Y Abyu MS, A F Aregay MS, B D Betsu MS, A A Gebru MPH, G B Hailu MSc, A Z Yalew MS, H G Yebyo MS); Kilte Awlaelo-Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Mekelle, Ethiopia (S F Abera MSc); Food Security and Institute for Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany (S F Abera MSc); Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil (D M X Abreu PhD, Prof E B Franca PhD); Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Doha, Qatar (L J Abu-Raddad PhD); Public Health Promotion Alliance, Osogbo, Nigeria (A L Adelekan MPH); University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (A L Adelekan MPH, R O Akinyemi PhD, F A Ojelabi MPH); University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland (Z Ademi PhD, T Fürst PhD); Department of Paediatrics (P Azzopardi MEpi), The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity (Prof B C Cowie PhD, K B Gibney FRACP, J H MacLachlan MS), Department of Medicine (A Meretoja PhD), Murdoch Childrens Research Institute (K Alam PhD, P Azzopardi MEpi, R Borschmann PhD, S M Colquhoun PhD, Prof G C Patton MD, R G Weintraub MBBS), Institute of Health and Ageing (Prof C E I Szoeke PhD), Center for Youth Mental Health (L Vijayakumar PhD), Melbourne School of Population and Global Health (Prof A D Lopez PhD), The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (Z Ademi PhD, K Alam PhD, M A Bohensky PhD, R Borschmann PhD, S M Colquhoun PhD, Prof H R Taylor AC, R G Weintraub MBBS, Prof T Wijeratne MD); Association Ivoirienne pour le Bien-Être Familial, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (A K Adou MD); University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain (Prof J C Adsuar PhD); Direction du District Sanitaire de Haho, Notse, Togo (K A Afanvi MD); Faculte des Sciences de Sante, Universite de Lome, Lome, Togo (K A Afanvi MD); Institution of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden (E E Agardh PhD); Dalla Lana School of Public Health (N Akseer MSc, Prof J Rehm PhD), Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (A Badawi PhD), Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation (M P Lindsay PhD), Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (S Popova PhD), University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada (A Agarwal BHSc); McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada (A Agarwal BHSc); CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India (A Agrawal PhD); Department of Internal Medicine (A Agrawal PhD), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA (P J Hotez PhD); Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Orthopedics, Clinical Epidemiology Unit (A Ahmad Kiadaliri PhD), Skane University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund (Prof B Norrving PhD), Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Health Services Management Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran (A Ahmad Kiadaliri PhD); University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, McKeesport, PA, USA (O N Ajala MD); University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA (A S Akanda PhD); Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK (R O Akinyemi PhD); Department of Epidemiology (T F Akinyemiju PhD), University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA (D C Schwebel PhD, J A Singh MD); Baghdad College of Medicine, Baghdad, Iraq (F H Al Lami PhD); University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK (S Alabed MS); Washington University in Saint Louis, St Louis, MO, USA (Z Al-Aly MD); Sydney School of Public Health (Prof T R Driscoll PhD), The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia (K Alam PhD, Prof A H Kemp PhD, J Leigh PhD, A B Mekonnen MS); Queensland Health, Herston, QLD, Australia (N K M Alam MPH); Ministry of Health, Al Khuwair, Oman (D Alasfoor MSc); King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (S F Aldhahri MD, K A Altirkawi MD); Department of Anesthesiology (A S Terkawi MD), King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (S F Aldhahri MD); Centre for Public Health Data Science, Institute of Health Informatics (R W Aldridge PhD), Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research (R W Aldridge PhD, A Banerjee DPhil), Institute for Global Health (R W Aldridge PhD), Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (T Tillmann MSc), University College London, London, UK; Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine (M A Alegretti MD), School of Medicine (A V Aleman MD), Faculty of Medicine (F Cavalleri BS), University of the Republic, Montevideo, Uruguay (V Colistro MSc); Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia (Z A Alemu MPH); King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (S Alhabib PhD); Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), Strassen, Luxembourg (A Alkerwi PhD); School of Public Health, University of Lorraine, Nancy, France (Prof F Alla PhD); Department of Public Health Sciences (P Allebeck PhD), Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (Prof J J Carrero PhD), Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS) (S Fereshtehnejad PhD), Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (E Weiderpass PhD), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (R Havmoeller PhD); Ministry of Health, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (R Al-Raddadi PhD); Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany (U Alsharif MPH); Spanish Observatory on Drugs, Government Delegation for the National Plan on Drugs, Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality, Madrid, Spain (E Alvarez Martin PhD); Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia (Prof N Alvis-Guzman PhD); School of Medicine (A T Amare MPH, Y A Melaku MPH), University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia (L G Ciobanu MS, G A Tessema MPH); College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia (A T Amare MPH); University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana (A K Amegah PhD, A A Kudom PhD); National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria (Prof E A Ameh MBBS); Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran (H Amini MSPH); Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (H Amini MSPH, T Fürst PhD), Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland (C K Karema MSc); Ministry of Public Health, Beirut, Lebanon (W Ammar PhD, H L Harb MPH); Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA (S M Amrock MD); Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction, Department of Health Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark (H H Andersen MSc); Department of Health Policy and Administration, College of Public Health (C A T Antonio MD), College of Public Health (E J A Faraon MD), University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines; Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden (Prof J Ärnlöv PhD, Prof A Larsson PhD); Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden (Prof J Ärnlöv PhD); School of Medicine, Institute of Microbiology and Immunology (Prof V S Arsic Arsenijevic PhD), Faculty of Medicine (A Barac PhD), University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; University Children Hospital, Belgrade, Serbia (Prof V S Arsic Arsenijevic PhD); University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada (A Artaman PhD); Department of Medical Emergency, School of Paramedic, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran (H Asayesh PhD); South Asian Public Health Forum, Islamabad, Pakistan (R J Asghar MD); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (S Atique MS); Institut de Recherche Clinique du Bénin, Cotonou, Benin (E F G A Avokpaho MPH); Laboratoire d’Etudes et de Recherche-Action en Santé (LERAS Afrique), Parakou, Benin (E F G A Avokpaho MPH, F G Gankpé MD); Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India (A Awasthi MSc); Wardliparingga Aboriginal Research Unit, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia (P Azzopardi MEpi); School of Health Sciences, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan (U Bacha PhD); Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada (A Badawi PhD); INECO Neurociencias, Rosario, Argentina (M C Bahit MD); Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, India (K Balakrishnan PhD); School of Psychology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand (S L Barker-Collo PhD); Africa Health Research Institute, Mtubatuba, South Africa (Prof T Bärnighausen MD); Institute of Public Health, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany (Prof T Bärnighausen MD, S Mohammed PhD); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health (Prof L Barregard MD), Health Metrics Unit (Prof M Petzold PhD), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia (L H Barrero ScD); School of Health Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand (A Basu PhD); Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA (S Basu PhD); Jhpiego-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (Y T Bayou PhD); College of Medicine, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA (Prof S Bazargan-Hejazi PhD); David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA (Prof S Bazargan-Hejazi PhD); Kermanshah University of Medical Science, Kermanshah, Iran (Prof S Bazargan-Hejazi PhD); Oxford University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (J Beardsley MBChB); College of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan, Saudi Arabia (N Bedi MD); IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy (E Beghi MD); School of Public Health (K Deribe MPH, A D Hailu MPH), Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (H A Belay PhD, A Z Giref PhD, D Haile MPH, T Jibat MS, W A A Manamo MS, W M Tefera MPH, B D Yirsaw PhD); School of Medicine (K N Sheth MD), Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA (Prof M L Bell PhD, Prof B J Biroscak PhD); University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada (A K Bello PhD); Internal Medicine Department (Prof I S Santos PhD), University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (I M Bensenor PhD, Prof P A Lotufo DrPH); Debre Berhane University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia (A Berhane PhD); Division of Health and Social Care Research (Prof C D A Wolfe MD), King’s College London, London, UK (E Bernabé PhD); Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia (A S Beyene MPH, M D Gishu MS); Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham, UK (N Bhala DPhil); University of Otago Medical School, Wellington, New Zealand (N Bhala DPhil); Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India (A Bhalla MD); Independent Public Health Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (S Biadgilign MPH); Department of Nephrology Issues of Transplanted Kidney, Academician V I Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs, Moscow, Russia (B Bikbov MD); University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA (A A Bin Abdulhak MD); University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA (Prof B J Biroscak PhD); Department of Community Medicine (Prof E Bjertness PhD), University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (A S Htet MPhil); World Bank, Washington, DC, USA (D Bose PhD); Vision & Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK (Prof R R A Bourne FRCOphth); Danube-University Krems, Krems, Austria (Prof M Brainin PhD); Cambridge Institute of Public Health, Cambridge, UK (Prof C E G Brayne MD); Faculty of Health Sciences and Social Work, Department of Public Health, Trnava University, Trnava, Slovakia (A Brazinova PhD, M Majdan PhD); International Neurotrama Research Organization, Vienna, Austria (A Brazinova PhD); College of Medicine (J Shen PhD), The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA (Prof N J K Breitborde PhD); German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany (Prof H Brenner MD, B Schöttker MPH); Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA (J D Brewer MD); University of Leicester, Leicester, UK (Prof T S Brugha MD); University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA (G C Buckle MD, R A Gosselin MD); Al Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan (Z A Butt PhD); National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia (B Calabria PhD, A Lal PhD, Prof R M Lucas PhD); National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (Prof L Degenhardt PhD), Brien Holden Vision Institute (Prof S Resnikoff MD), School of Optometry and Vision Science (Prof S Resnikoff MD), University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia (B Calabria PhD); Telethon Kids Institute, the University of Western Australia, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Subiaco, WA, Australia (Prof J R Carapetis PhD); Metropolitan Autonomous University, Mexico City, Mexico (R Cárdenas ScD); University at Albany, Rensselaer, NY, USA (Prof D O Carpenter MD); Colombian National Health Observatory, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, Colombia (C A Castañeda-Orjuela MSc); Epidemiology and Public Health Evaluation Group, Public Health Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia (C A Castañeda-Orjuela MSc); Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica (Prof J Castillo Rivas MPH); Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Montes de Oca, Costa Rica (Prof J Castillo Rivas MPH); Department of Medicine, University of Valencia/INCLIVA Health Research Institute and CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain (F Catalá-López PhD); Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada (F Catalá-López PhD); Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, USA (J Cerda MD); Cancer Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China (W Chen PhD); Clinical Governance Unit, Gold Coast Health, Southport, QLD, Australia (P P Chiang PhD); Crowd Watch Africa, Lusaka, Zambia (M Chibalabala BS); National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Japan (C E Chibueze PhD, R Mori PhD); Department of Environmental Epidemiology (O Chimed-Ochir MPH), Department of Health Development, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Y Jiang PhD), Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, Department of Environmental Epidemiology (Prof K Takahashi MD), University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan; University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia (V H Chisumpa MPhil, C C Mapoma PhD, F Masiye PhD); University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa (V H Chisumpa MPhil); Seoul National University Medical Library, Seoul, South Korea (J J Choi PhD); Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK (R Chowdhury PhD); Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark (Prof H Christensen DMSCi); Christian Medical College, Vellore, India (Prof D J Christopher MD); University of Salerno, Baronissi, Italy (Prof M Cirillo MD); Health Effects Institute, Boston, MA, USA (A J Cohen DSc); Ministerio de Salud Pública, Montevideo, Uruguay (V Colistro MSc); UNICEM, Montevideo, Uruguay (M Colomar MSc); MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK (Prof C Cooper FMedSci); NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK (Prof C Cooper FMedSci); Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA (L T Cooper MD); WHO Collaborating Centre for Viral Hepatitis, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (Prof B C Cowie PhD); Centre for International Health, Dunedin School of Medicine (Prof J A Crump MD), University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand (Prof R G Poulton PhD); Building and Road Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana (J Damsere-Derry MPH); Walden University, Minneapolis, MN, USA (Prof H Danawi PhD, Prof A H Refaat PhD); Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK (Prof P I Dargan FRCP); i3S – Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde and INEB – Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica (J das Neves PhD), Faculty of Medicine (J Massano MD), EPIUnit – Institute of Public Health (J M Pedro MS), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Wellcome Trust Brighton & Sussex Centre for Global Health Research, Brighton, UK (Prof G Davey MD); Public Health England, London, UK (Prof A C Davis PhD, F Greaves PhD, Prof J N Newton FRCP); University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania (D V Davitoiu PhD); National Institute of Public Health, Mexico City, Mexico (E F de Castro PhD); School of Public Health (P de Jager FCPHM(SA)), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa (Prof M Petzold PhD); National Health Laboratory Service, National Institute for Occupational Health, Johannesburg, South Africa (P de Jager FCPHM[SA]); Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia (Prof D De Leo DSc); University of Colorado School of Medicine and the Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, USA (R P Dellavalle MD); Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK (K Deribe MPH); KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya (A Deribew PhD); Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka (S D Dharmaratne MD); Centre for Control of Chronic Conditions (P Jeemon PhD), Public Health Foundation of India, Gurgaon, India (P K Dhillon PhD, P Ganguly MD, D K Lal MD, Prof S Zodpey PhD); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain (C Diaz-Torné MD); Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil (Prof K P B dos Santos MA); International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India (M Dubey MPhil, M H U Rahman MPhil, A Singh PhD); Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil (B B Duncan PhD, C Kieling MD, Prof M I Schmidt MD); University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA (B B Duncan PhD); Eijkman-Oxford Clinical Research Unit, Jakarta, Indonesia (I Elyazar PhD); Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia (A Y Endries MPH); The Institute of Social and Economic Studies of Population, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia (Prof S P Ermakov DSc); Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia (Prof S P Ermakov DSc); Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran (B Eshrati PhD); Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran (B Eshrati PhD); Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (Prof A Esteghamati MD, N Hafezi-Nejad MD), Digestive Diseases Research Institute (S Fahimi PhD, Prof R Malekzadeh MD, G Roshandel PhD, S G Sepanlou PhD), Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute (F Farzadfar MD, A Kasaeian PhD, M Parsaeian PhD), Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Neuroscience Institute (P Heydarpour MD), Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center (A Kasaeian PhD), Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health (M Parsaeian PhD), Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center (Prof V Rahimi-Movaghar MD), Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Centre (S Sheikhbahaei MD), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (M Yaseri PhD); Department of Health, Manila, Philippines (E J A Faraon MD); University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA (T A Farid MD, A R Khan MD); DGS Directorate General of Health, Lisboa, Portugal (C S E S Farinha MSc); Universidade Aberta, Lisboa, Portugal (C S E S Farinha MSc); Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil (Prof A Faro PhD); Harvard/MGH Center on Genomics, Vulnerable Populations, and Health Disparities, Mongan Institute for Health Policy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA (M S Farvid PhD); National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences (V L Feigin PhD), Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand (B J Te Ao MPH); Institute of Education and Sciences, German Hospital Oswaldo Cruz, São Paulo, Brazil (Prof J G Fernandes PhD); Centre for Experimental Medicine & Rheumatology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK (J C Fernandes PhD); Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany (F Fischer MPH); Institute of Gerontology, Academy of Medical Science, Kyiv, Ukraine (N Foigt PhD); Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Research Centre (I Shiue PhD), University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK (Prof F G R Fowkes PhD); James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia (R C Franklin PhD); Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology (T Fürst PhD), Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (F B Piel PhD), Imperial College London, London, UK (F Greaves PhD, Prof A Majeed MD); University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia (S L Gall PhD); National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, Tbilisi, Georgia (K Gambashidze MS, A Gamkrelidze PhD, M Kereselidze PhD, M Shakh-Nazarova MS); Indian Institute of Public Health Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, India (P Ganguly MD, V J Iyer MPH); CHU Hassan II, Fès, Morocco (F G Gankpé MD); The Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, GA, USA (T Gebre PhD); Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany (A T Gebremedhin MPH); Kilte Awlaelo Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Mekelle, Ethiopia (A A Gebru MPH, G B Hailu MSc); Division of Human Nutrition (J M Geleijnse PhD), Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands (T Jibat MS); Agence de Medecine Preventive, Paris, France (B D Gessner MD); National Allergy Asthma Bronchitis Institute, Kolkata, India (A G Ghoshal DNB); The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (K B Gibney FRACP); College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA (R F Gillum MD, A Mehari MD); Graduate School of Medicine (S Gilmour PhD, M Inoue MD), School of Public Health (Prof N Kawakami MD), University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (K Shibuya MD); University Hospital of Dijon, Dijon, France (Prof M Giroud MD); Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Harar, Ethiopia (M D Gishu MS); Heller School for Social Policy and Management (E Glaser PhD), Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, USA (Y A Halasa MS, Prof D S Shepard PhD, E A Undurraga PhD); University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, USA (Prof P Gona PhD); Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas y Servicios de Alta Tecnologia – INDICASAT-AIP, Ciudad del Saber, Panamá (A Goodridge PhD); Department of Health and Social Affairs, Government of the Federated States of Micronesia, Palikir, Federated States of Micronesia (S V Gopalani MPH); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada (C C Gotay PhD, Prof N Kissoon MD, J A Kopec PhD, S Murthy MD, F Pourmalek PhD); Division of Epidemiology, Center for Public Health Sciences (A Goto PhD), National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan (M Inoue MD); Departments of Microbiology and Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Saint James School of Medicine, The Quarter, Anguilla (Prof H C Gugnani PhD); West Virginia Bureau for Public Health, Charleston, WV, USA (R Gupta MD); Eternal Heart Care Centre and Research Institute, Jaipur, India (R Gupta PhD); Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, Delhi, India (V Gupta PhD); National Institute of Psychiatry Ramon de la Fuente, Mexico City, Mexico (R A Gutiérrez PhD); Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain (Prof R R Hamadeh DPhil); Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (S Hamidi PhD); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA (A J Handal PhD); School of Medicine and Pharmacology (Prof G J Hankey MD), University of Western Australia, Fremantle, WA, Australia (Prof P E Norman MD); Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research, Nedlands, WA, Australia (Prof G J Hankey MD); Western Australian Neuroscience Research Institute, Nedlands, WA, Australia (Prof G J Hankey MD); School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China (Prof Y Hao PhD); Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, India (S Harikrishnan DM); Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu – CIBERSAM, Sant Boi de Llobregat (Barcelona), Spain (J M Haro MD); Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (J M Haro MD); National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, Netherlands (H B Hilderink PhD); Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen (Prof H W Hoek MD), University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands (A K Tura MPH); Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA (Prof H W Hoek MD); Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada (Prof R S Hogg PhD); BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC, Canada (Prof R S Hogg PhD); Nevada Division of Public and Behavioral Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Carson City, NV, USA (M Horino MPH); Department of Pulmonology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan (N Horita MD); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA (Prof H D Hosgood PhD); Public Health Division, The Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia (D G Hoy PhD); Department of Epidemiology, Salah Azaiz Institute, Tunis, Tunisia (Prof M Hsairi MD); International Relations Division (A S Htet MPhil), Ministry of Health, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar (M M T Htike MPH); Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China (G Hu PhD); George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA (Prof C Huang PhD); Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA, USA (H Huang MD); CHU La Réunion, Saint-Denis, France (L Huiart PhD); Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine (A Husseini PhD); International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France (I Huybrechts PhD); Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium (I Huybrechts PhD); Institute for Disease Modeling, Bellevue, WA, USA (G Huynh PhD); Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (K M Iburg PhD); National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia (K Innos PhD); MCH Division, USAID – Global Health Bureau, HIDN, Washington, DC, USA (T A Jacobs MD); Department of Global and Community Health, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA (K H Jacobsen PhD); School of Public Health (N Jahanmehr PhD), Ophthalmic Epidemiology Research Center (M Katibeh MD), Ophthalmic Research Center (Prof Z Rajavi MD, M Yaseri PhD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia (Prof M B Jakovljevic PhD); University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK (M Javanbakht PhD); Department of Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA (S P Jayaraman MD); Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, Colombo, Sri Lanka (A U Jayatilleke PhD); Institute of Violence and Injury Prevention, Colombo, Sri Lanka (A U Jayatilleke PhD); Centre for Chronic Disease Control, New Delhi, India (P Jeemon PhD, D Prabhakaran DM); George Institute for Global Health India, New Delhi, India (Prof V Jha DM); Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Tianjin, China (G Jiang MD); Department of Ocular Epidemiology and Visual Health, Institute of Ophthalmology Conde de Valencia, Mexico City, Mexico (A Jimenez-Corona PhD); General Directorate of Epidemiology, Ministry of Health, Mexico City, Mexico (A Jimenez-Corona PhD); Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany (Prof J B Jonas MD); Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, New Delhi, India (T K Joshi MS); University College Cork, Cork, Ireland (Z Kabir PhD); CSIR – Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India (R Kamal MSc, C N Kesavachandran PhD); Zhongshan Hospital (J She MD), Department of Nephrology (Z Shen MD), Department of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital (H Zhang PhD), Fudan University, Shanghai, China (H Kan MD); King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India (Prof S Kant MD); Epidemiological and Statistical Methods Research Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany (A Karch MD); Hannover-Braunschweig Site, German Center for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany (A Karch MD); Quality and Equity Health Care, Kigali, Rwanda (C K Karema MSc); Case Western University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH, USA (C Karimkhani MD); Center for Research in Health and Economics, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain (D Karletsos MS); All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India (Prof G Karthikeyan DM, N Naik DM, V K Paul MD, A Roy DM, R Sagar MD, M Satpathy PhD, Prof N Tandon PhD); Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK, USA (A Kaul MD); Institut de recherche de l’hôpital de Monttfort, Ottawa, ON, Canada (J F Kayibanda PhD); Institute of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Nairobi, Kenya (P N Keiyoro PhD); School of Continuing and Distance Education, Nairobi, Kenya (P N Keiyoro PhD); Farr Institute (Prof R A Lyons MD), Swansea University, Swansea, UK (Prof A H Kemp PhD); Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drug Research Unit (Prof C D Parry PhD), South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa (A P Kengne PhD, R Matzopoulos PhD, Prof C S Wiysonge PhD); School of Public Health and Family Medicine (R Matzopoulos PhD), Department of Psychiatry (Prof D J Stein PhD), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa (A P Kengne PhD, Prof B M Mayosi DPhil, D A Watkins MD); Assuta Hospitals, Assuta Hashalom, Tel Aviv, Israel (Prof A Keren MD); Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan (Prof Y S Khader ScD); Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan (E A Khan MPH); College of Medicine (Prof Y H Khang MD), Graduate School of Public Health (Prof S Won PhD), Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA (S Khera MD, M Tavakkoli MD); Executive Board of the Health Ministers’ Council for Cooperation Council States, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (Prof T A M Khoja FRCP); Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil (C Kieling MD); Department of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA (Prof D Kim DrPH); Southern University College, Skudai, Malaysia (Y J Kim PhD); University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA (B M Kissela MD); Department of Preventive Cardiology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan (Y Kokubo PhD); Division of Cardiology (D Kolte MD), Brown University, Providence, RI, USA (Prof S T McGarvey PhD); Center for Community Empowerment, Health Policy and Humanities, NIHRD, Jakarta, Indonesia (S Kosen MD); Sher-i-Kashmir Institue of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, India (Prof P A Koul MD); Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain (A Koyanagi MD); Department of Demography and Public Health Research Institute (Prof B Kuate Defo PhD), Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health (Prof B Kuate Defo PhD), University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; Institute of Public Health, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (B Kucuk Bicer PhD); Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands (Prof E J Kuipers PhD); Arkansas State University, State University, AR, USA (V S Kulkarni PhD); School of Medicine (G F Kwan MD), Department of Surgery, School of Medicine (S R Rao PhD), Boston University, Boston, MA, USA; Institute of Health Policy and Development Studies, National Institutes of Health, Manila, Philippines (Prof H Lam PhD); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (J O Lam PhD), Bloomberg School of Public Health (Prof J B Nachega PhD), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA (B X Tran PhD); Help Me See, Inc, New York, NY, USA (V C Lansingh PhD); Instituo Mexicano de Oftalmologia, Queretaro, Mexico (V C Lansingh PhD); Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana (D O Laryea MD); Department of Zoology, Lahore College for WomenUniversity, Lahore, Pakistan (A A Latif PhD); Instituto Nacional de Epidemiología “Dr Juan H Jara,” Mar del Plata, Argentina (A E B Lawrynowicz MPH); Tuscany Regional Centre for Occupational Injuries and Diseases, Florence, Italy (M Levi PhD); San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA (Y Li PhD); Heart and Stroke Foundation Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada (M P Lindsay PhD); School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA (Prof S E Lipshultz MD, Prof J D Wilkinson MD); Children’s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI, USA (Prof S E Lipshultz MD); Rollins School of Public Health (E P Simard PhD), Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA (Prof Y Liu PhD, Prof M R Phillips MD, Q Xiao MPH); UnionHealth Associates, LLC, St Louis, MO, USA (L Lo MD); Alton Mental Health Center, Alton, IL, USA (L Lo MD); University of Bari, Bari, Italy (Prof G Logroscino PhD); Aintree University Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK (Prof R Lunevicius PhD); School of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK (Prof R Lunevicius PhD); Ministry of Health Singapore, Singapore, Singapore (S Ma PhD); Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore (S Ma PhD); Public Health Department, Northern Region Health Administration, Porto, Portugal (V M Machado MSc); Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (M T Mackay MBBS, R G Weintraub MBBS); Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura, Egypt (H Magdy Abd El Razek MBBCH); Aswan University Hospital, Aswan Faculty of Medicine, Aswan, Egypt (M Magdy Abd El Razek MBBCh); JSI Research and Training, Harare, Zimbabwe (J Mandisarisa PhD); Technical Standards and Safety Authority, Toronto, ON, Canada (S Mangalam MS); Division of Population and Patient Health, King’s College London Dental Institute, London, UK (Prof W Marcenes PhD); Perelman School of Medicine (P A Meaney MD), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA (D J Margolis PhD, D H Silberberg MD); Children’s National Health System, Washington, DC, USA (G R Martin MD); University Hospital Doctor Peset, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (J Martinez-Raga PhD); CEU Cardenal Herrera University, Moncada (Valencia), Spain (J Martinez-Raga PhD); University of the East Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Quezon City, Philippines (M B Marzan MSc); Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK (A J Mason-Jones PhD); Hospital Pedro Hispano/ULS Matosinhos, Matosinhos, Portugal (J Massano MD); Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK, USA (B J McMahon MD); Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA (P A Meaney MD); Janakpuri Superspecialty Hospital, New Delhi, India (Prof M M Mehndiratta DM); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health (S M Woldeyohannes MPH), University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia (A B Mekonnen MS, B A Tedla BS, B M Zeleke MD); University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, USA (P Memiah PhD); Saudi Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (Prof Z A Memish MD); College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (Prof Z A Memish MD); United Nations Population Fund, Lima, Peru (W Mendoza MD); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland (A Meretoja PhD); Helsinki University Hospital, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Breast Surgery Unit, Helsinki, Finland (T J Meretoja PhD); Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine (T Lallukka PhD), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (T J Meretoja PhD); Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo, Tanzania (F A Mhimbira MS); Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy (R Micha PhD, D Mozaffarian MD), Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA (P Shi PhD, G M Singh PhD); Pacific Institute for Research & Evaluation, Calverton, MD, USA (T R Miller PhD); Centre for Population Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia (T R Miller PhD); University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq (K A Mohammad PhD); Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (A Mohammadi PhD); Health Systems and Policy Research Unit, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria (S Mohammed PhD); Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India (V Mohan DSc); Dr Mohan’s Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai, India (V Mohan DSc); University of Papua New Guinea, Boroko, Papua New Guinea (Prof G L D Mola DPH, FRANCOG); Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo,” Trieste, Italy (L Monasta DSc, M Montico Msc, L Ronfani PhD); Department of Community Medicine, Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center, Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (M Moradi-Lakeh MD); International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia (L Morawska PhD); Competence Center Mortality-Follow-Up of the German National Cohort (A Werdecker PhD), Federal Institute for Population Research, Wiesbaden, Germany (Prof U O Mueller PhD, R Westerman PhD); Indian Institute of Public Health (Prof G V S Murthy MD), Public Health Foundation of India, Gurgaon, India (P K Dhillon PhD, P Ganguly MD, D K Lal MD, Prof S Zodpey PhD); School of Medical Sciences, University of Science Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia (K I Musa MD); Graduate School of Public Health (Prof J B Nachega PhD), Public Health Dynamics Laboratory (A J Paternina Caicedo MD), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Psychiatry (Prof C D Parry PhD), Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa (Prof J B Nachega PhD, Prof S Seedat PhD, Prof C S Wiysonge PhD); Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany (Prof G Nagel PhD, Prof D Rothenbacher MD); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa (Prof K S Naidoo PhD, Prof B Sartorius PhD); Azienda Ospedaliera Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy (Prof L Naldi MD, Prof G Remuzzi MD); Suraj Eye Institute, Nagpur, India (V Nangia MD); Institute for Implementation Science in Population Health, School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA (D Nash PhD); Faculty of Medicine, Fez, Morocco (Prof C Nejjari PhD); School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland (S Neupane PhD); KEMRI Wellcome Trust, Kilifi, Kenya (Prof C R Newton MD); Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (F N Ngalesoni MSc); East African Community Health Research Commission, Kigali, Rwanda (J D Ngirabega PhD); Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam (Q L Nguyen MD); Institute For Research, Socio-Economic Development and Communication, Yaoundé, Cameroon (P M Nkamedjie Pete MS); National Institute of Public Health, Saitama, Japan (M Nomura PhD); Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda (L Nyakarahuka MPH); Centre for Health Research, Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia (F A Ogbo MPH); Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan (Prof T Ohkubo MD); Universidad Autonoma de Chile, Talca, Chile (Prof P R Olivares PhD); Center for Healthy Start Initiative, Lagos, Nigeria (B O Olusanya PhD, J O Olusanya MBA); Lira District Local Government, Lira Municipal Council, Uganda (J N Opio MPH); University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA (Prof E Oren PhD); IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz-UAM, Madrid, Spain (Prof A Ortiz PhD); YBank, Cambridge, MA, USA (M Osman MD); St Luke’s International University, Tokyo, Japan (E Ota PhD); Karabuk University, Karabuk, Turkey (R Ozdemir PhD); JSS Medical College, JSS University, Mysore, Karnataka, India (Mahesh PA DNB); Christian Medical College Ludhiana, Ludhiana, India (J D Pandian DM); University of the West of England, Bristol, UK (P R Pant PhD); Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany (C Papachristou PhD); Department of Medical Humanities and Social Medicine, College of Medicine, Kosin University, Busan, South Korea (E Park PhD); Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, South Korea (Prof J Park MPH); Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia (A J Paternina Caicedo MD); Department of Community Health Sciences (Prof S B Patten PhD), University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada (Prof M Tonelli MD); Health Research Centre of Angola, Caxito, Angola (J M Pedro MS); Economics Institute, Belgrade, Serbia (L Pejin Stokic MSc); REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal (Prof D M Pereira PhD); IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy (M Cortinovis Biotech D, G Giussani Biol D, N Perico MD, Prof G Remuzzi MD); Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia (Prof K Pesudovs PhD, F H Tesfay MPH); Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China (Prof M R Phillips MD); Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa (J D Pillay PhD); Exposure Assessment and Environmental Health Indicators, German Environment Agency, Berlin, Germany (D Plass DrPH); Department of Anesthesiology (A S Terkawi MD), University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA (J A Platts-Mills MD); Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands (S Polinder PhD); Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA (Prof C A Pope PhD); Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran (M Qorbani PhD); Contech School of Public Health, Lahore, Pakistan (A Rafay MS, Prof S M Rana PhD); Research and Evaluation Division, BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh (M Rahman PhD); Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (Prof S U Rahman FCPS); Society for Health and Demographic Surveillance, Suri, India (R K Rai MPH); ERAWEB Program, UMIT, Hall in Tirol, Austria (S Rajsic MD); University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA (M Raju PhD); WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark (I Rakovac PhD); Contech International Health Consultants, Lahore, Pakistan (Prof S M Rana PhD); Wonju College of Medicine, Institute for Poverty Alleviation and International Development, Yonsei University, Wonju, South Korea (C L Ranabhat PhD); Schizophrenia Research Foundation, Chennai, India (T Rangaswamy FRCPsych); Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt (Prof A H Refaat PhD); Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada (Prof J Rehm PhD); Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences L Sacco, University of Milan, Milan, Italy (Prof G Remuzzi MD); Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil (Prof A L Ribeiro MD); UO Neurologia USL Umbria 1, Città di Castello, Italy (S Ricci FRCPEd);); Medical Research Council Unit, The Gambia, Fajara, The Gambia (A Roca PhD); (ISGlobal) Instituto de Salud Global de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (D Rojas-Rueda PhD); Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran (G Roshandel PhD); Holmusk, Singapore, Singapore (N K Roy MS); Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore (N K Roy MS); Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (G M Ruhago PhD, B F Sunguya PhD); Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Brisbane, QLD, Australia (S Saha PhD); Ballarat Health Service, Ballarat, VIC, Australia (R Sahathevan PhD); Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (R Sahathevan PhD); Development Research and Projects Center, Abuja, Nigeria (M M Saleh MPH); Marshall University J Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV, USA (J R Sanabria MD); Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA (J R Sanabria MD); IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain (M D Sanchez-Niño PhD); Institut d’Investigacio Biomedica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL), L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain (L Sanchez-Riera PhD); Universidad Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales, Bogotá, Colombia (R Sarmiento-Suarez MPH); Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA (M Sawhney PhD); Swiss Research Institute of Public Health and Addiction (M P Schaub PhD), University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland (H G Yebyo MS); Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil (I J C Schneider PhD, D A S Silva PhD); Institute of Health Care and Social Sciences, FOM University, Essen, Germany (B Schöttker MPH); Hypertension in Africa Research Team (HART), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa (Prof A E Schutte PhD); Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drug Research Unit (Prof C D Parry PhD), South African Medical Research Council, Potchefstroom, South Africa (Prof A E Schutte PhD); University of Bath, Bath, UK (G Shaddick PhD); Department of Public Health, An-Najah University, Nablus, Palestine (A Shaheen PhD); Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA (S Shahraz PhD); Independent Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan (M A Shaikh MD); Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, India (R Sharma MA); Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA (J Shen PhD); Shanghai Kidney and Dialysis Institute, Shanghai, China (Z Shen MD); Sri Siddhartha University, Tumkur, India (Prof B P Shetty MD); ISHA Diagnostics, Bangalore, India (Prof B P Shetty MD); Department of Public Health Science, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea (Prof M Shin PhD); Work Organizations, Work Disability Prevention, The Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland (R Shiri PhD, T Lallukka PhD); Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK (I Shiue PhD); Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland (I D Sigfusdottir PhD); Brasília University, Brasília, Brazil (D G A Silveira MD); Feinberg School of Medicine (J I Silverberg MD), Department of Preventive Medicine (Y Yano MD), Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India (O P Singh PhD); Institute for Human Development, New Delhi, India (P K Singh PhD); Asthma Bhawan, Jaipur, India (V Singh MD); Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA (S Soneji PhD); Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway (K Søreide PhD); Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain (Prof J B Soriano PhD); Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Western University, London, ON, Canada (L A Sposato MD); Department of Community Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (C T Sreeramareddy MD); Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece (V Stathopoulou PhD); South African Medical Research Council Unit on Anxiety & Stress Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa (Prof D J Stein PhD); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA (M B Stein MD); Luxembourg Institute of Health, Strassen, Luxembourg (S Stranges PhD); Alexandra General Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece (K Stroumpoulis PhD); Centre Hospitalier Public du Cotentin, Cherbourg, France (K Stroumpoulis PhD); Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India (S Swaminathan MD); Departments of Criminology, Law & Society, Sociology, and Public Health, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA (Prof B L Sykes PhD); Department of Medicine, University of Valencia, INCLIVA Health Research Institute and CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain (Prof R Tabarés-Seisdedos PhD); School of Social Work, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA (K M Tabb PhD); WSH Institute, Ministry of Manpower, Singapore, Singapore (J S Takala DSc); Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland (J S Takala DSc); Ministry of Health, MINSANTE, Yaoundé, Cameroon (R T Talongwa MD); Department of Biology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY, USA (B Taye PhD); James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia (B A Tedla BS); Addis Ababa City Government, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (W M Tefera MPH); Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, Netherlands (M Ten Have PhD); Outcomes Research Consortium (A S Terkawi MD), Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA (Prof E M Tuzcu MD); University Of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia (G A Tessema MPH); Adaptive Knowledge Management, Victoria, BC, Canada (A J Thomson PhD); WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia (A L Thorne-Lyman ScD); Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health (Prof A G Thrift PhD), Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (B M Zeleke MD); Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine, New York University, Tuxedo, NY, USA (Prof G D Thurston ScD); Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland (R Topor-Madry PhD); Faculty of Health Sciences, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland (R Topor-Madry PhD); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece (Prof F Topouzis PhD); Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA (Prof J A Towbin MD); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA (Prof J A Towbin MD); St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA (Prof J A Towbin MD); University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Brazil (Prof J Traebert PhD); Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam (B X Tran PhD); Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark (T Truelsen DMSc); Servicio Canario de Salud, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain (U Trujillo MD); Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia (A K Tura MPH); Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC, USA (U S Uchendu MD); Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria (K N Ukwaja MD); Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK (O A Uthman PhD); Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra, Italy (R Van Dingenen PhD); Department of Physics and Atsmopheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (A van Donkelaar PhD); UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland (Prof T Vasankari PhD); University of Brasilia, Brasília, Brazil (Prof A M N Vasconcelos PhD); Raffles Neuroscience Centre, Raffles Hospital, Singapore, Singapore (N Venketasubramanian FRCP); Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA (R Vidavalur MD); VHS SNEHA, Chennai, India (L Vijayakumar PhD); University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy (Prof F S Violante MD); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia (Prof V V Vlassov MD); National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Washington, DC, USA (G R Wagner MD); VA Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA (M T Wallin MD); Neurology Department, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA (M T Wallin MD); McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada (S Weichenthal PhD); Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-Based Cancer Research, Oslo, Norway (E Weiderpass PhD); Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway (E Weiderpass PhD); Genetic Epidemiology Group, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland (E Weiderpass PhD); German National Cohort Consortium, Heidelberg, Germany (R Westerman PhD); Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Modelling (R A White PhD), Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway (C L Ellingsen MD, N H Krog PhD, M Savic PhD); Western Health, Footscray, VIC, Australia (Prof T Wijeratne MD); Children’s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI, USA (Prof J D Wilkinson MD); Centre of Evidence-based Dermatology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK (Prof H C Williams DSc); National Institute for Health Research Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre, Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London, London, UK (Prof C D A Wolfe MD); Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health, Manila University, Pasig City, Philippines (J Q Wong MD); Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, UK (Prof A D Woolf FRCP); St John’s Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore, India (Prof D Xavier MD); Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, China (Prof G Xu PhD); Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa (B Yakob PhD); Global Health Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan, China (Prof L L Yan PhD); Social Work and Social Administration Department and The Hong Kong Jockey Club Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (Prof P Yip PhD); University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA, Australia (B D Yirsaw PhD); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan (N Yonemoto MPH); Aga Khan University, East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya (Prof G Yonga MD); Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA (Prof M Z Younis DrPH); University Hospital, Setif, Algeria (Prof Z Zaidi PhD); Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt (Prof M E Zaki PhD); Clinical Investigation Centre INSERM (the National Institute for Health and Medical Research), Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France (Prof F Zannad PhD); CHU de Nancy, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France (Prof F Zannad PhD); Ponce Health Sciences University, Ponce, Puerto Rico (D E Zavala PhD); Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany (Prof H Zeeb PhD); Shanghai Institute of Kidney Disease and Dialysis, Shanghai, China (H Zhang PhD); Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA (D Zonies MD); Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (L J Zuhlke PhD)

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