September 20, 2021

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Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

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All causes .. .. .. 792 004·7 (588 538·7–1 019 955·2) 15·1 (14·5 to 15·6)* −2·1 (−2·5 to −1·7)* Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases 4 133 822·3 (4 108 132·5 to 4 161 262·6) 8·0 (7·3 to 8·7)* −4·2 (−4·8 to −3·6)* 112 501·9 (80 347·4–156 270·9) −0·5 (−2·4 to 2·5) −9·7 (−11·4 to −7·0)* HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis 46 005·2 (44 985·8 to 47 146·6) 18·6 (15·2 to 22·1)* 2·9 (−0·0 to 5·9) 6702·3 (4798·6–8863·5) 2·1 (−3·5 to 7·2) −12·2 (−17·0 to −7·8)* Tuberculosis 8861·2 (8076·3 to 9707·2) 9·2 (6·3 to 12·2)* −7·2 (−9·5 to −4·7)* 2712·4 (1829·9–3744·0) 9·4 (6·4 to 12·5)* −6·8 (−9·2 to −4·2)* HIV/AIDS 37 277·5 (36 279·9 to 38 339·1) 21·1 (16·9 to 25·5)* 5·6 (2·0 to 9·6)* 3989·9 (2891·2–5159·5) −2·4 (−10·5 to 5·5) −15·6 (−23·0 to −8·5)* HIV/AIDS—tuberculosis 1258·0 (1142·5 to 1386·9) −17·9 (−20·7 to −14·9)* −28·3 (−30·7 to −25·7)* 471·9 (316·0–645·6) −17·8 (−20·7 to −14·7)* −28·1 (−30·6 to −25·5)* HIV/AIDS resulting in other diseases 37 543·3 (36 350·0 to 39 028·4) 23·6 (20·5 to 26·7)* 7·9 (5·1 to 10·6)* 3518·0 (2 555·4–4 558·9) 0·2 (−9·3 to 9·3) −13·6 (−22·1 to −5·2)* HIV aggregate 21 149·0 (20 260·3 to 22 292·3) −19·5 (−22·5 to −16·3)* −29·7 (−32·3 to −26·9)* 1543·6 (1 107·2–2 025·2) −20·4 (−23·4 to −17·2)* −30·4 (−33·1 to −27·6)* AIDS aggregate 16 394·3 (15 747·0 to 17 154·2) 299·5 (251·4 to 355·5)* 232·9 (193·5 to 279·0)* 1974·4 (1432·0–2559·9) 25·5 (0·9 to 56·1)* 6·1 (−14·6 to 32·4) Diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases 402 320·4 (393 746·5 to 408 994·2) 8·0 (7·2 to 8·8)* −2·9 (−3·7 to −2·3)* 14 865·0 (10 397·0–20 283·4) 6·2 (5·4 to 7·1)* −4·0 (−4·7 to −3·3)* Diarrhoeal diseases 35 820·6 (34 342·1 to 37 537·8) 6·4 (5·5 to 7·3)* −3·3 (−4·1 to −2·5)* 5731·7 (3 943·3–7 890·5) 6·4 (5·4 to 7·5)* −3·1 (−4·0 to −2·2)* Diarrhoea episodes aggregate 35 816·3 (34 337·5 to 37 534·1) 6·4 (5·5 to 7·3)* −3·3 (−4·1 to −2·5)* 5730·4 (3 942·2–7 889·0) 6·4 (5·4 to 7·5)* −3·1 (−4·0 to −2·2)* Guillain-Barré syndrome due to diarrhoeal diseases 4·2 (3·2 to 5·5) 16·9 (14·7 to 19·5)* −0·2 (−0·9 to 0·4) 1·3 (0·8–1·9) 16·9 (14·7 to 19·5)* −0·2 (−0·9 to 0·4) Intestinal infectious diseases 1666·8 (1594·4 to 1 732·8) −23·3 (−25·6 to −20·6)* −28·2 (−30·4 to −25·8)* 220·3 (149·3–306·5) −18·6 (−22·8 to −13·8)* −24·2 (−28·1 to −19·8)* Typhoid fever 1446·7 (1256·2 to 1 648·1) −18·3 (−20·8 to −15·6)* −23·9 (−26·3 to −21·3)* 191·0 (129·5–267·8) −17·7 (−22·1 to −12·6)* −23·2 (−27·4 to −18·5)* Typhoid fever episodes aggregate 1197·9 (1041·3 to 1366·6) −18·3 (−21·7 to −14·8)* −23·9 (−27·1 to −20·5)* 113·3 (75·8–162·5) −18·1 (−22·6 to −13·4)* −23·7 (−27·8 to −19·2)* Complications of typhoid fever aggregate 248·8 (210·8 to 292·2) −18·2 (−28·6 to −5·4)* −23·8 (−33·5 to −12·1)* 77·8 (51·6–110·8) −17·0 (−28·5 to −3·0)* −22·6 (−33·1 to −9·9)* Paratyphoid fever 529·3 (431·3 to 646·3) −17·8 (−22·6 to −12·7)* −23·8 (−28·2 to −19·2)* 27·5 (17·5–40·7) −17·5 (−24·7 to −9·2)* −23·5 (−30·1 to −16·1)* Paratyphoid fever episodes aggregate 502·2 (409·6 to 612·7) −17·8 (−22·6 to −12·4)* −23·8 (−28·2 to −19·0)* 24·4 (15·5–36·4) −17·5 (−24·9 to −8·7)* −23·5 (−30·7 to −15·5)* Intestinal perforation due to paratyphoid 27·1 (20·9 to 34·5) −17·6 (−33·0 to 1·4) −23·7 (−37·8 to −6·1)* 3·1 (1·9–4·6) −17·5 (−32·8 to 1·6) −23·6 (−37·7 to −5·9)* Other intestinal infectious diseases .. .. .. 1·8 (0·6–4·1) −67·0 (−78·8 to −45·8)* −69·3 (−80·2 to −50·1)* Lower respiratory infections 8986·6 (8545·2 to 9393·7) 5·1 (4·0 to 6·2)* −8·2 (−9·1 to −7·3)* 540·4 (365·3–760·3) 4·9 (3·5 to 6·3)* −8·1 (−9·2 to −7·0)* Lower respiratory infection episodes aggregate 8982·2 (8539·8 to 9387·9) 5·1 (4·0 to 6·2)* −8·2 (−9·1 to −7·3)* 539·1 (364·5–759·5) 4·9 (3·5 to 6·3)* −8·1 (−9·2 to −7·0)* Guillain-Barré syndrome due to lower respiratory infections 4·4 (2·5 to 6·9) 16·9 (14·7 to 19·5)* −0·2 (−0·9 to 0·4) 1·3 (0·7–2·2) 16·9 (14·7 to 19·5)* −0·2 (−0·9 to 0·4) Upper respiratory infections 233 470·3 (208 009·7 to 259 076·8) 10·2 (8·9 to 11·5)* −1·4 (−2·0 to −0·8)* 2738·4 (1538·6–4644·3) 10·1 (8·9 to 11·5)* −1·3 (−1·9 to −0·6)* Upper respiratory infection episodes aggregate 233 458·2 (207 997·9 to 259 065·2) 10·2 (8·9 to 11·5)* −1·4 (−2·0 to −0·8)* 2734·8 (1 533·9–4 641·4) 10·1 (8·9 to 11·5)* −1·3 (−1·9 to −0·6)* Guillain-Barré syndrome due to upper respiratory infections 12·1 (9·6 to 15·2) 16·9 (14·7 to 19·5)* −0·2 (−0·9 to 0·4) 3·6 (2·2–5·4) 17·0 (14·7 to 19·5)* −0·2 (−0·9 to 0·4) Otitis media 112 089·1 (100 504·6 to 123 655·6) 5·2 (4·1 to 6·5)* −4·4 (−5·5 to −3·4)* 3321·5 (2 114·2–4 906·3) 3·3 (0·6 to 6·0)* −5·6 (−8·0 to −3·1)* Acute otitis media 25 630·8 (21 044·2 to 31 570·6) 9·4 (7·5 to 11·2)* 1·3 (−0·4 to 3·0) 334·9 (169·4–623·7) 9·4 (7·5 to 11·4)* 1·4 (−0·3 to 3·1) Chronic otitis media aggregate 86 458·3 (76 403·0 to 97 133·7) 4·1 (2·7 to 5·5)* −6·0 (−7·2 to −4·8)* 2986·6 (1904·2–4 371·1) 2·7 (−0·2 to 5·6) −6·3 (−8·9 to −3·6)* Meningitis 8733·5 (8320·6 to 9107·1) 16·9 (13·4 to 20·0)* 2·5 (−0·6 to 5·1) 1516·9 (1076·1–1986·0) 15·0 (13·7 to 16·5)* 1·9 (0·7 to 3·0)* Pneumococcal meningitis 7297·2 (6228·5 to 8635·3) 22·2 (19·7 to 25·1)* 6·9 (4·7 to 9·6)* 728·8 (513·1–959·9) 17·6 (15·5 to 19·7)* 3·9 (2·0 to 5·6)* Acute pneumococcal meningitis 40·3 (33·5 to 48·4) 25·3 (17·4 to 33·8)* 12·1 (5·2 to 19·5)* 5·3 (3·4–7·8) 25·1 (15·1 to 37·1)* 11·9 (3·2 to 22·3)* Complications of pneumococcal meningitis aggregate 7256·9 (6191·3 to 8591·7) 22·2 (19·7 to 25·1)* 6·9 (4·7 to 9·6)* 723·5 (509·2–952·4) 17·6 (15·4 to 19·6)* 3·8 (2·0 to 5·6)* H influenzae type b meningitis 2455·6 (1966·7 to 3032·6) −8·3 (−12·2 to −3·9)* −18·0 (−21·5 to −13·9)* 302·1 (209·4–407·1) 6·9 (3·4 to 10·6)* −3·3 (−6·6 to 0·0) Acute H influenzae type b meningitis 22·0 (17·2 to 28·7) −19·2 (−25·3 to −11·9)* −26·0 (−31·8 to −19·2)* 2·9 (1·8–4·5) −18·7 (−26·1 to −10·8)* −25·6 (−32·4 to −18·1)* Complications of H influenzae type b meningitis aggregate 2433·5 (1947·4 to 3010·8) −8·2 (−12·1 to −3·7)* −17·9 (−21·5 to −13·7)* 299·1 (207·9–402·7) 7·3 (3·7 to 11·0)* −3·0 (−6·3 to 0·3) Meningococcal meningitis 1720·8 (1327·7 to 2 180·5) 22·0 (17·9 to 26·2)* 7·5 (3·8 to 11·3)* 161·6 (111·7–215·6) 19·7 (17·5 to 22·1)* 5·1 (3·2 to 7·4)* Acute meningococcal meningitis 22·8 (18·9 to 27·7) 24·4 (14·4 to 34·9)* 12·7 (3·7 to 22·4)* 3·0 (1·8–4·5) 24·7 (10·9 to 39·4)* 12·9 (0·5 to 25·9)* Complications of meningococcal meningitis aggregate 1698·0 (1305·2 to 2155·2) 22·0 (17·9 to 26·2)* 7·4 (3·8 to 11·2)* 158·6 (109·4–211·9) 19·6 (17·4 to 22·0)* 5·0 (3·1 to 7·3)* Other meningitis 3015·2 (2438·5 to 3618·0) 19·0 (16·6 to 21·6)* 3·5 (1·4 to 5·9)* 324·5 (225·1–428·1) 15·3 (13·3 to 17·4)* 0·9 (−0·8 to 2·7) Other meningitis episodes aggregate 134·5 (120·0 to 151·7) 16·3 (10·2 to 22·5)* 5·7 (0·1 to 11·4)* 17·8 (11·5–25·3) 16·6 (8·6 to 24·0)* 5·9 (−1·1 to 12·5) Complications of other meningitis aggregate 2880·4 (2300·7 to 3474·9) 19·1 (16·5 to 21·9)* 3·4 (1·2 to 5·8)* 306·7 (213·3–406·6) 15·2 (13·2 to 17·5)* 0·6 (−1·1 to 2·6) Encephalitis 4315·8 (3145·8 to 5875·6) 4·8 (2·8 to 7·4)* −9·3 (−11·3 to −6·7)* 457·0 (326·7–594·9) 6·7 (4·6 to 9·0)* −6·3 (−8·2 to −4·3)* Acute encephalitis 81·8 (74·8 to 89·5) 7·1 (5·2 to 9·0)* −4·1 (−5·7 to −2·4)* 10·8 (7·1–15·5) 7·5 (3·8 to 11·1)* −3·7 (−6·9 to −0·5)* Complications of encephalitis aggregate 4233·6 (3069·6 to 5787·5) 4·8 (2·7 to 7·3)* −9·4 (−11·4 to −6·8)* 446·2 (318·8–581·4) 6·7 (4·6 to 9·0)* −6·4 (−8·3 to −4·4)* Diphtheria 0·6 (0·3 to 1·2) −59·6 (−81·7 to −12·7)* −62·8 (−83·1 to −19·5)* 0·0 (0·0–0·1) −59·7 (−81·7 to −12·7)* −62·8 (−83·1 to −19·5)* Whooping cough 2232·6 (1725·9 to 2800·7) −27·4 (−29·5 to −25·2)* −32·4 (−34·3 to −30·3)* 110·3 (65·6–167·0) −27·3 (−29·6 to −24·8)* −32·3 (−34·5 to −30·0)* Tetanus 209·3 (204·8 to 214·7) 8·4 (6·1 to 9·8)* −2·7 (−5·0 to −1·4)* 9·1 (6·7–12·2) −8·9 (−14·5 to −3·7)* −18·1 (−23·3 to −13·3)* Severe tetanus 8·6 (6·5 to 13·0) −46·3 (−54·0 to −36·0)* −52·1 (−59·1 to −42·9)* 1·1 (0·7–1·9) −45·9 (−53·8 to −35·7)* −51·8 (−58·9 to −42·6)* Complications of tetanus aggregate 200·7 (196·7 to 204·5) 13·3 (12·8 to 13·9)* 1·8 (1·4 to 2·3)* 8·0 (5·8–10·6) 1·0 (−3·7 to 5·4) −8·8 (−13·0 to −4·9)* Measles 127·4 (56·8 to 252·2) −70·2 (−73·6 to −66·0)* −72·3 (−75·4 to −68·4)* 11·5 (4·3–25·3) −70·0 (−73·6 to −65·4)* −72·0 (−75·4 to −67·7)* Varicella and herpes zoster 5907·7 (5489·4 to 6344·6) 15·2 (14·1 to 16·5)* −0·4 (−0·8 to −0·0)* 207·8 (127·9–316·5) 18·5 (16·5 to 20·8)* −0·4 (−1·4 to 0·7) Neglected tropical diseases and malaria 1 900 062·6 (1 863 148·8 to 1 940 058·5) −0·4 (−2·5 to 1·9) −10·7 (−12·7 to −8·7)* 20 763·1 (13 382·4–32 174·5) −4·7 (−13·2 to 8·9) −14·5 (−22·2 to −2·4)* Malaria 295 717·3 (257 568·4 to 338 449·0) 29·9 (22·5 to 37·2)* 20·0 (12·9 to 27·2)* 3358·2 (2356·9–4703·9) 16·1 (12·8 to 19·3)* 8·5 (5·4 to 11·4)* Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia (PfPR) 206 147·2 (168 670·7 to 246 888·7) 37·3 (27·0 to 48·1)* 26·4 (16·6 to 36·8)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) Malaria episodes aggregate 16 756·8 (10 341·8 to 25 965·5) −15·9 (−23·6 to −8·4)* −21·1 (−28·4 to −14·1)* 346·6 (174·4–598·4) −15·8 (−23·6 to −8·2)* −20·9 (−28·2 to −13·7)* Complications of malaria aggregate 876·9 (798·1 to 957·9) 28·4 (26·5 to 30·5)* 18·4 (16·5 to 20·3)* 274·9 (209·7–344·8) 24·7 (20·5 to 29·1)* 15·0 (11·2 to 18·9)* Anaemia due to malaria parasitaemia (PfPR) aggregate 71 936·4 (70 137·5 to 73 504·2) 26·3 (24·4 to 28·0)* 17·0 (15·3 to 18·6)* 2736·7 (1848·0–3918·8) 21·1 (18·1 to 24·3)* 13·1 (10·5 to 16·1)* Chagas disease 6653·6 (5750·5 to 7575·6) −7·1 (−9·7 to −4·1)* −22·1 (−24·2 to −19·7)* 63·1 (42·1–90·8) −1·8 (−5·1 to 1·7) −21·0 (−23·6 to −18·3)* Chagas disease episodes aggregate 5634·7 (4850·5 to 6414·1) −7·8 (−10·3 to −4·9)* −22·2 (−24·3 to −19·8)* 0·0 (0·0–0·1) −18·7 (−22·9 to −14·4)* −27·6 (−31·1 to −24·1)* Complications of Chagas disease aggregate 666·0 (525·5 to 820·6) −5·2 (−7·9 to −1·9)* −22·0 (−24·3 to −19·6)* 44·8 (30·0–62·8) −2·5 (−6·0 to 1·2) −21·0 (−23·6 to −18·3)* Heart failure due to Chagas disease aggregate 353·0 (221·5 to 503·5) 0·3 (−2·9 to 4·0) −20·9 (−23·4 to −18·2)* 18·2 (9·7–29·4) 0·2 (−3·6 to 4·4) −20·9 (−23·8 to −17·8)* Leishmaniasis 3859·3 (3438·4 to 4570·4) 27·3 (5·9 to 55·0)* 11·4 (−7·0 to 35·1) 45·8 (22·8–86·7) 25·5 (21·9 to 28·9)* 10·5 (7·5 to 13·5)* Visceral leishmaniasis 60·8 (57·5 to 64·7) 10·6 (9·7 to 11·4)* 2·3 (1·6 to 3·0)* 4·3 (2·9–6·1) 10·8 (2·1 to 20·7)* 2·6 (−5·4 to 11·5) Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis 3895·9 (3 324·6 to 4 767·5) 27·0 (23·7 to 30·1)* 11·0 (8·3 to 13·8)* 41·5 (19·4–80·8) 27·3 (23·6 to 30·5)* 11·4 (8·3 to 14·5)* African trypanosomiasis 10·7 (6·0 to 17·0) −68·7 (−70·4 to −67·3)* −72·3 (−73·8 to −71·0)* 3·0 (1·4–5·3) −67·4 (−72·6 to −62·1)* −71·0 (−75·5 to −66·6)* Schistosomiasis 252 339·5 (211 032·5 to 321 081·3) −23·5 (−32·5 to −4·4)* −30·9 (−39·0 to −13·7)* 2472·6 (1275·0–4521·2) −21·8 (−29·3 to −4·0)* −29·1 (−36·0 to −13·1)* Schistosomiasis episodes aggregate 130 285·7 (114 433·9 to 156 900·0) −26·3 (−34·5 to −13·6)* −33·1 (−40·5 to −21·3)* 740·7 (292·3–1584·0) −27·3 (−35·2 to −14·1)* −34·0 (−41·0 to −22·0)* Complications of schistosomiasis aggregate 105 621·9 (76 641·0 to 160 339·4) −19·6 (−32·6 to 14·1) −27·7 (−39·4 to 3·0) 1188·8 (535·9–2 463·3) −18·0 (−30·5 to 15·6) −26·3 (−37·5 to 4·3) Anaemia due to schistosomiasis aggregate 16 331·3 (16 075·8 to 16 655·1) −19·6 (−21·1 to −17·7)* −27·0 (−28·3 to −25·3)* 543·1 (365·1–781·5) −21·5 (−24·0 to −18·6)* −27·8 (−30·0 to −25·1)* Cysticercosis 1931·0 (1597·8 to 2312·0) −6·2 (−10·2 to −2·5)* −20·8 (−24·3 to −17·6)* 286·7 (194·2–392·8) −16·3 (−21·3 to −11·8)* −29·2 (−33·3 to −25·3)* Cystic echinococcosis 1383·0 (1265·9 to 1498·6) 24·7 (22·6 to 27·0)* 6·7 (5·0 to 8·5)* 126·8 (86·7–174·6) 24·3 (21·1 to 27·5)* 6·6 (4·1 to 9·2)* Lymphatic filariasis 38 464·1 (31 328·2 to 46 783·0) −44·9 (−49·9 to −39·9)* −51·6 (−56·0 to −47·2)* 2075·0 (1120·6–3311·2) −16·2 (−32·1 to −3·9)* −27·7 (−41·5 to −17·1)* Prevalence of detectable microfiliaria due to lymphatic filariasis 19 707·9 (17 173·8 to 22 270·5) −58·8 (−61·8 to −55·3)* −63·5 (−66·1 to −60·3)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) Complications of lymphatic filariasis aggregate 18 756·3 (12 420·1 to 26 397·1) −14·8 (−29·9 to −3·5)* −26·7 (−40·1 to −16·7)* 2075·0 (1120·6–3311·2) −16·2 (−32·1 to −3·9)* −27·7 (−41·5 to −17·1)* Onchocerciasis 15 531·5 (11 963·5 to 19 993·8) −29·1 (−39·5 to −18·8)* −36·8 (−46·0 to −27·5)* 1135·7 (546·2–2005·4) −21·2 (−38·5 to −4·8)* −31·2 (−46·7 to −16·2)* Asymptomatic onchocerciasis 2280·4 (1525·0 to 3173·2) −62·4 (−66·1 to −59·6)* −66·2 (−69·5 to −63·7)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) Skin disease due to onchocerciasis aggregate 12 223·9 (8 474·7 to 16 585·2) −17·4 (−31·0 to −2·7)* −26·5 (−38·6 to −13·1)* 1055·6 (467·4–1894·7) −22·2 (−41·8 to −3·2)* −31·6 (−49·0 to −14·8)* Vision loss due to onchocerciasis aggregate 1025·4 (724·8 to 1452·1) −2·3 (−15·0 to 11·8) −22·3 (−32·3 to −11·0)* 80·1 (51·3–117·5) −6·1 (−16·9 to 6·0) −25·4 (−33·9 to −15·9)* Trachoma 3557·1 (2940·5 to 4321·8) 4·6 (0·4 to 9·2)* −19·3 (−22·9 to −15·2)* 279·2 (192·8–396·0) −1·2 (−5·6 to 3·0) −23·9 (−27·5 to −20·3)* Dengue 4730·0 (2654·1 to 10 254·2) 143·6 (−0·3 to 564·7) 119·7 (−10·1 to 498·7) 764·1 (346·8–1 744·2) 140·8 (−0·1 to 558·4) 117·7 (−9·8 to 494·3) Dengue episodes aggregate 1409·2 (937·6 to 2943·8) 134·1 (−3·8 to 521·2) 110·8 (−13·2 to 459·0) 82·1 (45·0–183·9) 141·4 (0·4 to 549·2)* 117·9 (−9·4 to 486·7) Post-dengue chronic fatigue syndrome 3324·6 (1600·3 to 7347·9) 143·7 (−0·3 to 564·7) 119·8 (−10·1 to 498·7) 682·0 (295·2–1 608·9) 140·8 (−0·2 to 558·0) 117·6 (−9·8 to 494·1) Yellow fever 2·8 (0·8 to 7·7) −25·7 (−31·6 to −19·2)* −31·6 (−36·9 to −25·8)* 0·1 (0·0–0·3) −25·7 (−31·6 to −19·2)* −31·6 (−36·9 to −25·8)* Rabies 0·7 (0·6 to 0·8) −43·4 (−51·5 to −33·8)* −50·8 (−57·6 to −42·6)* 0·1 (0·1–0·1) −43·4 (−51·5 to −33·8)* −50·8 (−57·6 to −42·6)* Intestinal nematode infections 1 447 209·3 (1 414 995·0 to 1 481 332·3) −2·5 (−5·1 to 0·2) −12·8 (−15·2 to −10·4)* 3173·8 (1861·3–5090·8) −22·8 (−27·3 to −17·3)* −30·4 (−34·5 to −25·4)* Ascariasis 761 893·8 (682 557·5 to 861 031·5) −10·8 (−22·5 to 2·5) −20·3 (−30·7 to −8·2)* 871·0 (482·5–1 464·3) −37·7 (−45·3 to −29·4)* −43·9 (−50·8 to −36·4)* Complications of ascariasis aggregate 47 626·4 (44 087·5 to 51 711·9) −35·6 (−41·9 to −28·4)* −42·1 (−47·8 to −35·6)* 871·0 (482·5–1 464·3) −37·7 (−45·3 to −29·4)* −43·9 (−50·8 to −36·4)* Asymptomatic ascariasis 714 230·7 (634 201·9 to 814 009·5) −8·5 (−20·9 to 6·4) −18·2 (−29·3 to −4·9)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) Trichuriasis 463 652·1 (426 621·2 to 502 939·4) −2·1 (−12·0 to 9·0) −12·2 (−21·1 to −2·1)* 544·1 (290·7–946·0) −16·7 (−30·6 to 3·6) −24·9 (−37·5 to −6·8)* Complications of trichuriasis aggregate 27 129·6 (24 188·7 to 31 890·8) −15·6 (−27·8 to 2·1) −24·1 (−35·0 to −8·2)* 544·1 (290·7–946·0) −16·7 (−30·6 to 3·6) −24·9 (−37·5 to −6·8)* Asymptomatic trichuriasis 436 525·4 (400 013·3 to 475 985·5) −1·1 (−11·8 to 11·0) −11·3 (−21·0 to −0·3)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) Hookworm disease 428 245·9 (394 486·0 to 468 292·4) −7·3 (−16·9 to 3·5) −17·2 (−25·8 to −7·5)* 1758·8 (1088·5–2754·9) −14·6 (−19·9 to −9·4)* −22·9 (−27·7 to −18·2)* Complications of hookworm disease aggregate 51 012·9 (48 151·1 to 54 346·2) −14·0 (−21·0 to −6·2)* −23·2 (−29·5 to −16·3)* 1046·7 (572·8–1732·1) −15·5 (−24·0 to −6·3)* −24·4 (−32·1 to −16·3)* Anaemia due to hookworm disease aggregate 24 220·2 (24 078·2 to 24 365·2) −6·2 (−7·3 to −5·1) −15·5 (−16·5 to −14·6)* 712·1 (476·3–1031·1) −13·2 (−15·6 to −11·1)* −20·5 (−22·6 to −18·7)* Asymptomatic hookworm disease 352 948·6 (319 143·2 to 392 574·4) −6·4 (−18·3 to 7·5) −16·4 (−27·2 to −3·9)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) Food-borne trematodiases 71 095·4 (67 365·5 to 75 246·9) 4·0 (1·5 to 6·6)* −9·3 (−11·4 to −7·1)* 1686·5 (857·1–3066·8) 3·7 (−0·4 to 10·1)* −10·0 (−13·4 to −5·2)* Asymptomatic food-borne trematodiases aggregate 56 131·7 (45 765·9 to 63 620·3) 3·8 (1·2 to 6·6)* −9·3 (−11·6 to −6·9)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0–0·0) Symptomatic food-borne trematodiases aggregate 14 963·7 (8 632·7 to 25 256·6) 4·8 (0·5 to 11·4)* −9·3 (−12·8 to −4·2)* 1686·5 (857·1–3066·8) 3·7 (−0·4 to 10·1) −10·0 (−13·4 to −5·2)* Leprosy 514·2 (487·0 to 545·7) −0·1 (−0·5 to 0·3) −19·7 (−20·2 to −19·3)* 31·0 (20·9–43·5) 0·6 (−1·5 to 2·9) −19·2 (−20·8 to −17·4)* Ebola 2·8 (1·2 to 5·2) 54 521·3 (46 386·2 to 68 346·9)* 49 817·9 (41 865·6 to 62 764·9)* 0·6 (0·2–1·1) 51 908·8 (42 739·0 to 66 884·3)* 47 453·0 (38 609·5 to 61 730·3)* Other neglected tropical diseases 61 452·6 (60 842·8 to 62 054·9) 0·1 (−1·0 to 1·3) −7·7 (−8·8 to −6·6)* 5261·1 (2558·5–12 199·0) 7·4 (−18·9 to 50·6) −1·2 (−25·5 to 38·0) Anaemia due to other neglected tropical diseases aggregate 61 452·6 (60 842·8 to 62 054·9) 0·1 (−1·0 to 1·3) −7·7 (−8·8 to −6·6)* 2158·2 (1 446·3–3 073·1) −6·0 (−8·2 to −3·8)* −12·4 (−14·5 to −10·4)* Maternal disorders 11 372·9 (10 686·6 to 11 894·1) 2·1 (−4·2 to 9·2) −7·9 (−13·6 to −1·8)* 898·8 (642·8–1222·9) −5·1 (−18·7 to 11·2) −15·1 (−27·0 to −0·3)* Maternal haemorrhage 2304·8 (2231·6 to 2 393·5) 1·6 (−3·0 to 6·5) −7·8 (−12·0 to −3·4)* 84·7 (57·3–119·5) 0·1 (−13·5 to 17·2) −9·1 (−21·3 to 6·6) Maternal hemorrhage episodes aggregate 191·7 (127·8 to 277·5) 2·9 (−36·5 to 66·2) −6·4 (−42·1 to 49·9) 31·3 (18·1–49·0) 3·3 (−30·6 to 54·9) −6·0 (−36·3 to 41·1)* Anaemia due to maternal haemorrhage aggregate 2113·4 (2082·8 to 2141·5) 1·5 (−0·9 to 3·9) −7·9 (−10·1 to −5·8)* 53·5 (35·0–78·6) −1·8 (−5·9 to 2·6) −10·8 (−14·5 to −6·9)* Maternal sepsis and other maternal infections 3140·8 (2658·0 to 3727·7) 3·7 (−15·2 to 27·8) −7·8 (−24·2 to 13·1) 56·5 (29·5–102·4) −1·0 (−42·3 to 70·4) −9·7 (−47·1 to 55·2) Maternal sepsis and other maternal infections aggregate 900·0 (486·7 to 1462·3) −2·4 (−50·3 to 93·7) −10·2 (−54·4 to 78·1) 45·3 (22·2–82·7) −2·7 (−49·0 to 91·0) −10·5 (−53·2 to 73·6) Infertility due to puerperal sepsis 2242·1 (2 030·5 to 2483·0) 6·4 (4·4 to 8·9)* −6·8 (−8·6 to −4·7)* 11·2 (4·2–24·3) 6·7 (4·0 to 9·5)* −6·6 (−8·9 to −4·1)* Maternal hypertensive disorders 4624·4 (3030·8 to 6592·4) 2·7 (−37·9 to 69·8)* −5·8 (−43·0 to 55·4)* 222·4 (118·4–365·4) 2·6 (−37·3 to 68·5) −5·9 (−42·4 to 54·4) Maternal hypertensive disorders episodes aggregate 4629·2 (3031·5 to 6602·4) 2·8 (−37·8 to 70·0) −5·7 (−42·9 to 55·7) 219·1 (115·4–363·3) 2·7 (−37·0 to 68·8) −5·8 (−42·4 to 55·2) Eclampsia 5·4 (2·2 to 10·5) −5·8 (−69·0 to 182·2) −12·9 (−71·6 to 158·3) 3·3 (1·2–6·3) −5·7 (−69·0 to 182·2) −12·8 (−71·6 to 158·3) Maternal obstructed labour and uterine rupture 1077·2 (933·3 to 1255·2) −13·1 (−17·5 to −7·9)* −23·9 (−27·7 to −19·7)* 352·0 (234·6–499·9) −12·6 (−17·3 to −7·3)* −23·4 (−27·4 to −18·9)* Obstructed labour, acute event 89·6 (53·0 to 142·9) −3·6 (−45·9 to 74·7) −11·4 (−49·7 to 60·1) 27·7 (14·8–47·0) −3·1 (−44·9 to 72·1) −10·9 (−49·0 to 58·2) Fistula due to maternal obstructed labour and uterine rupture aggregate 987·6 (850·6 to 1156·0) −13·9 (−16·3 to −11·4)* −24·9 (−27·0 to −22·8)* 324·3 (216·2–457·4) −13·3 (−16·6 to −10·1)* −24·3 (−27·1 to −21·7)* Maternal abortion, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy 441·3 (285·5 to 630·6) −0·4 (−37·2 to 58·1) −9·4 (−42·4 to 44·2) 48·2 (27·2–78·5) −0·4 (−36·9 to 60·5) −9·3 (−42·4 to 45·6) Other maternal disorders .. .. .. 135·0 (90·6–190·2) −2·2 (−19·6 to 17·5) −12·2 (−27·7 to 5·5) Neonatal disorders 52 961·9 (50 435·8 to 54 978·4)* 14·7 (11·9 to 17·8)* 3·9 (1·3 to 6·7)* 10 710·5 (8113·9–13 786·1) 13·3 (9·5 to 17·4)* 3·1 (−0·3 to 6·8) Neonatal preterm birth complications 41 855·4 (36 843·4 to 47 188·1)* 10·6 (6·2 to 15·2)* −0·4 (−4·3 to 3·8)* 5090·9 (3864·5–6555·6)* 4·4 (−1·1 to 10·1) −5·2 (−10·1 to 0·2) Vision loss due to retinopathy of prematurity aggregate 4245·1 (3386·2 to 5265·3) 11·1 (7·2 to 15·1)* −2·3 (−5·8 to 1·3) 135·5 (83·0–208·8) 13·9 (9·5 to 18·4) −0·8 (−4·5 to 3·2) Complications of preterm birth complications aggregate 37 609·0 (33 086·7 to 42 697·0) 10·5 (5·6 to 15·7)* −0·1 (−4·6 to 4·5) 4955·4 (3756·9–6394·8) 4·1 (−1·4 to 10·0) −5·3 (−10·4 to 0·2) Neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma 13 681·5 (9 797·3 to 19 759·3) 27·3 (24·6 to 30·0)* 16·2 (13·7 to 18·5)* 3769·4 (2451·7–5809·3) 25·1 (22·0 to 28·3)* 14·2 (11·5 to 17·0)* Neonatal sepsis and other neonatal infections 139·1 (79·9 to 216·0) −1·6 (−3·0 to −0·0)* −6·7 (−8·0 to −5·2)* 17·7 (9·2–31·0) −1·8 (−3·5 to 0·1) −6·9 (−8·5 to −5·1)* Severe infection due to neonatal sepsis and other neonatal infections 130·1 (71·1 to 207·6) −2·2 (−3·8 to −0·5)* −7·3 (−8·8 to −5·6)* 16·6 (8·1–30·0) −2·1 (−3·7 to −0·3)* −7·1 (−8·7 to −5·4)* Complications of neonatal sepsis and other neonatal infections aggregate 8·9 (7·5 to 10·4) 8·0 (4·3 to 12·7)* 2·4 (−1·1 to 6·9) 1·1 (0·6–1·6) 2·6 (−9·4 to 14·4) −2·7 (−14·1 to 8·5) Haemolytic disease and other neonatal jaundice 2042·8 (1825·0 to 2309·0) 20·0 (18·8 to 21·4)* 9·2 (8·0 to 10·3)* 603·0 (451·9–770·8) 17·0 (14·8 to 19·4)* 6·5 (4·4 to 8·6)* Other neonatal disorders .. .. .. 1229·5 (836·5–1 647·2) 19·9 (0·8 to 41·1)* 8·5 (−8·5 to 27·6) Nutritional deficiencies 1 482 655·3 (1 477 085·9 to 2·7 (2·2–3·2)* −7·1 (−7·5––6·7)* 54 632·4 (36 772·8–77 894·3) −3·5 (−4·9––2·1)* −11·4 (−12·7––10·3)* Protein-energy malnutrition 22 834·3 (21 764·0 to 23 985·1) −4·8 (−10·2 to 0·8) −12·1 (−17·1 to −6·9)* 2823·3 (1820·3–3984·2) −4·5 (−9·8 to 1·1) −11·8 (−16·7 to −6·6)* Iodine deficiency 110 919·5 (100 337·2 to 125 252·8) 7·0 (4·7 to 9·4)* −6·0 (−8·0 to −3·8)* 2386·9 (1 508·3–3 564·2) 7·7 (5·7 to 9·8)* −4·4 (−6·4 to −2·4)* Visible goiter due to iodine deficiency aggregate 108 307·6 (97 705·7 to 122 260·0) 6·9 (4·5 to 9·4)* −6·2 (−8·2 to −4·0)* 1927·5 (1192·0–3040·1) 6·9 (4·4 to 9·3)* −6·0 (−8·2 to −3·9)* Visible goiter with heart failure due to iodine deficiency aggregate 0·3 (0·3 to 0·4) 39·6 (38·3 to 41·0)* 4·2 (3·3 to 5·2)* 0·0 (0·0–0·1) 39·6 (38·3 to 41·0)* 4·2 (3·3 to 5·2)* Intellectual disability due to iodine deficiency aggregate 2611·6 (1085·6 to 3621·3) 10·4 (6·1 to 12·6)* 2·0 (−2·0 to 4·3) 459·3 (163·4–752·8) 11·0 (6·4 to 13·6)* 2·8 (−1·6 to 5·2) Vitamin A deficiency 4901·1 (3975·6 to 5921·7) 9·3 (6·2 to 12·5)* 0·1 (−2·7 to 2·7) 232·4 (143·5–345·9) 10·9 (7·5 to 14·6)* 0·2 (−2·7 to 3·3) Iron-deficiency anaemia 1 477 530·5 (1 470 902·3 to 1 485 322·2) 1·5 (0·9 to 2·1)* −8·0 (−8·5 to −7·4)* 48 529·2 (32 560·8–69 725·2) −3·8 (−5·1 to −2·4)* −11·6 (−12·8 to −10·5)* Iron-deficiency anaemia without heart failure aggregate 1 477 458·4 (1 470 824·4 to 39·7 (38·1–41·3)* 6·1 (4·7–7·4)* 8·1 (5·5–11·4) 39·6 (35·2–44·3)* 6·0 (2·5–9·9)* Iron-deficiency anaemia with heart failure aggregate 72·1 (64·6 to 80·7) 39·7 (38·1 to 41·3)* 6·1 (4·7 to 7·4)* 8·1 (5·5–11·4) 39·6 (35·2 to 44·3)* 6·0 (2·5 to 9·9)* Other nutritional deficiencies .. .. .. 660·7 (396·0–1026·9) −16·7 (−36·8 to 5·8) −22·9 (−41·5 to −2·1)* Other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases 1 604 919·9 (1 563 786·8 to 1 636 531·0) 16·1 (15·3 to 17·0)* −0·4 (−1·1 to 0·4) 3929·7 (2566·9–5786·6) 6·5 (3·9 to 9·2)* −4·0 (−6·2 to −1·7)* Sexually transmitted diseases excluding HIV 1 145 527·5 (1 100 971·2 to 1 176 685·1) 16·9 (15·7 to 18·3)* −1·0 (−2·1 to 0·1) 1573·7 (974·0–2501·8) 16·9 (14·5 to 19·1)* 1·3 (−0·6 to 3·4) Syphilis 43 604·9 (37 160·3 to 50 658·3) 3·7 (−0·4 to 7·0) −9·8 (−13·4 to −6·9)* 242·8 (166·1–333·7) 15·3 (12·2 to 18·5)* −5·6 (−8·0 to −3·0)* Early syphilis aggregate 42 350·9 (35 898·4 to 49 441·3) 3·3 (−0·9 to 6·8) −9·9 (−13·6 to −6·9)* 10·3 (3·0–25·3) 3·4 (−1·1 to 7·4) −9·9 (−13·7 to −6·3)* Adult tertiary syphilis 1254·0 (1127·1 to 1385·8) 15·8 (13·2 to 18·3)* −5·6 (−7·8 to −3·6)* 232·6 (155·4–322·8) 15·9 (12·6 to 19·1)* −5·4 (−7·9 to −2·8)* Chlamydial infection 82 822·4 (66 426·4 to 104 328·5) 8·3 (6·1 to 10·7)* −2·9 (−4·8 to −0·9)* 364·6 (210·6–589·5) 10·1 (6·9 to 13·4)* −1·8 (−4·5 to 0·8) Chlamydial infection episodes aggregate 81 072·5 (64 735·8 to 102 635·8) 8·3 (6·0 to 10·7)* −2·9 (−4·8 to −0·9)* 332·7 (185·2–546·0) 10·7 (7·1 to 14·4)* −1·1 (−4·1 to 2·1) Pelvic inflammatory diseases due to chlamydial infection aggregate 1·73 (147·8 to 202·0) 1·4 (−0·8 to 3·4) −11·5 (−13·2 to −9·8)* 23·1 (15·5 to 32·5) 1·8 (−2·2 to 5·7) −11·1 (−14.5 to 7·8)* Infertility due to chlamydial infection aggregate 1576·6 (1450·8 to 1703·9) 11·1 (10·0 to 12·2)* −3·0 (−3·9 to −2·0) 8·8 (3·6 to 18·4) 11·1 (9·0 to 13·2)* −2·9 (−4·8 to −1·1)* Gonococcal infection 47 468·5 (35 848·1 to 62 099·7) 25·3 (18·3 to 31·2)* 12·2 (5·9 to 17·7)* 444·9 (260·8–691·8) 26·3 (20·0 to 31·4)* 12·6 (6·7 to 17·3)* Gonococcal infection episodes aggregate 46 561·5 (34 928·2 to 61 227·4) 25·6 (18·5 to 31·6)* 12·5 (6·1 to 18·1)* 430·3 (250·5–671·5) 27·3 (20·7 to 32·5)* 13·5 (7·4 to 18·3)* Pelvic inflammatory diseases due to gonococcal infection aggregate 907·0 (822·0 to 1 016·3) 10·0 (7·6 to 11·8)* −3·8 (−6·0 to −2·2)* 14·6 (9·6–21·4) 3·5 (−0·8 to 7·1) −8·7 (−12·4 to −5·7)* Trichomoniasis 167 618·6 (144 744·1 to 193 444·0) 16·2 (15·3 to 17·2)* 0·9 (0·4 to 1·3)* 194·3 (78·0–408·3) 16·1 (15·0 to 17·2)* 1·0 (0·3 to 1·8)* Genital herpes 885 169·4 (772 303·8 to 1 008 588·1) 18·1 (16·4 to 19·9)* −1·3 (−2·7 to 0·1) 236·4 (74·3–554·2) 19·5 (17·4 to 23·0)* 0·7 (−1·4 to 5·0) Moderate infection due to initial genital herpes episode 389·0 (88·0 to 909·7) 38·1 (33·6 to 43·2)* 29·5 (25·4 to 34·3)* 19·0 (4·3–45·8) 37·6 (30·9 to 45·6)* 29·1 (22·9 to 36·7)* Complications of genital herpes aggregate 884 780·3 (771 914·6 to 1 008 400·6) 18·1 (16·4 to 19·9)* −1·3 (−2·7 to 0·0) 217·3 (62·2–534·5) 18·1 (16·3 to 19·9)* −1·2 (−2·7 to 0·3) Other sexually transmitted diseases 4821·8 (4452·8 to 5174·6) 9·6 (8·1 to 11·0)* −4·7 (−5·9 to −3·6)* 90·7 (61·5–129·7) 3·7 (1·1 to 6·2)* −10·0 (−12·2 to −7·8)* Pelvic inflammatory diseases due to other sexually transmitted diseases aggregate 507·2 (437·2 to 591·9) 1·2 (−0·1 to 2·6) −12·2 (−13·1 to −11·2)* 66·8 (45·4–92·9) 1·3 (−1·2 to 4·2) −12·0 (−14·3 to −9·8)* Infertility due to other sexually transmitted diseases aggregate 4314·5 (3943·8 to 4657·1) 10·7 (9·1 to 12·2)* −3·8 (−5·1 to −2·4)* 23·9 (9·7–48·8) 10·8 (9·0 to 12·7)* −3·6 (−5·2 to −2·0)* Other sexually transmitted diseases .. .. .. 329·4 (200·1–504·2) 19·5 (14·4 to 24·6)* 6·7 (2·2 to 11·3)* Hepatitis 497 901·2 (490 397·2 to 505 815·2) 16·7 (15·8 to 17·6)* 2·2 (1·4 to 2·9)* 406·4 (267·6–588·8) 12·6 (1·7 to 24·1)* 1·2 (−8·3 to 11·5) Acute hepatitis A 8785·5 (7 950·0 to 9 598·2) 4·2 (−7·2 to 17·0) −2·8 (−13·5 to 9·1) 172·5 (111·5–249·7) 9·5 (−0·1 to 20·4) 1·9 (−6·9 to 12·0) Hepatitis B 356 083·4 (342 942·4 to 370 231·5) 16·7 (15·0 to 18·4)* 2·8 (1·3 to 4·3)* 190·2 (121·1–282·2) 16·9 (−4·5 to 40·2) 1·2 (−16·9 to 20·7) Acute hepatitis B aggregate 12 832·2 (11 239·6 to 14 567·4) 13·2 (−4·3 to 35·2) 1·0 (−14·6 to 20·0) 190·2 (121·1–282·2) 16·9 (−4·5 to 40·2) 1·2 (−16·9 to 20·7) Chronic hepatitis B 343 251·2 (330 541·3 to 357 194·6) 16·9 (15·3 to 18·4)* 2·8 (1·5 to 4·3)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) Hepatitis C 142 745·3 (127 559·8 to 157 704·1) 18·0 (16·7 to 19·2)* 1·2 (0·1 to 2·2)* 8·7 (4·3–16·5) 17·0 (12·2 to 21·7)* 3·3 (−0·5 to 7·3) Acute hepatitis C aggregate 622·3 (580·4 to 666·6) 17·0 (15·7 to 18·4)* 3·4 (2·5 to 4·3)* 8·7 (4·3–16·5) 17·0 (12·2 to 21·7)* 3·3 (−0·5 to 7·3) Chronic hepatitis C 142 122·9 (126 977·7 to 157 044·9) 18·0 (16·7 to 19·2)* 1·2 (0·1 to 2·2)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) Acute hepatitis E 1501·9 (1385·4 to 1636·4) 3·5 (2·2 to 4·7)* −3·2 (−4·1 to −2·3)* 34·9 (22·4–51·7) 4·9 (−4·4 to 15·5) −2·6 (−10·9 to 6·8) Other infectious diseases 54 835·4 (54 385·8 to 55 273·8) 0·4 (−1·6 to 2·3) −8·0 (−9·8 to −6·2)* 1949·6 (1307·1–2797·1) −1·6 (−5·1 to 2·0) −8·7 (−12·0 to −5·5)* Non-communicable diseases 6 652 153·4 (6 633 099·8 to 6 668 805·2) 13·7 (13·6 to 13·8)* 0·0 (−0·0 to 0·1) 638 480·8 (478 716·6–819 498·9) 18·8 (18·4 to 19·2)* −0·1 (−0·4 to 0·2) Neoplasms 90 497·5 (89 215·7 to 91 896·1) 44·4 (42·1 to 46·7)* 12·4 (10·6 to 14·2)* 8569·3 (6265·5–11 079·2) 36·6 (31·8 to 41·2)* 6·4 (2·7 to 9·7)* Lip and oral cavity cancer 2425·1 (2278·7 to 2582·3) 38·6 (30·3 to 47·1)* 7·9 (1·5 to 14·3)* 209·1 (150·2–271·4) 36·7 (28·6 to 45·3)* 6·2 (−0·1 to 12·7) Nasopharynx cancer 732·7 (580·5 to 883·9) 18·0 (0·2 to 39·8)* −5·5 (−19·2 to 11·1) 69·7 (47·2–95·8) 16·8 (0·8 to 36·0)* −6·8 (−18·7 to 7·7) Other pharynx cancer 945·5 (885·9 to 1015·0) 32·7 (23·8 to 41·5)* 2·2 (−4·5 to 9·0) 79·5 (57·8–104·3) 30·7 (21·9 to 39·2)* 0·6 (−6·2 to 7·2) Oesophageal cancer 746·0 (641·5 to 925·7) 19·6 (2·5 to 39·9)* −8·2 (−21·2 to 7·1) 128·6 (92·0–167·5) 9·5 (−3·1 to 24·1) −16·1 (−25·4 to −5·2)* Stomach cancer 3539·4 (3339·9 to 3776·2) 16·3 (8·9 to 24·4)* −9·9 (−15·5 to −3·7)* 396·5 (292·4–504·2) 12·0 (4·8 to 20·2)* −13·3 (−18·8 to −7·1)* Colon and rectum cancer 9399·0 (9059·3 to 9758·3) 42·6 (38·1 to 47·2)* 8·7 (5·4 to 12·2)* 762·8 (564·2–979·6) 38·4 (33·7 to 43·3)* 5·3 (1·9 to 8·9)* Colon and rectum cancer aggregate 9377·0 (9037·3 to 9736·4) 42·6 (38·1 to 47·3)* 8·7 (5·4 to 12·2)* 759·8 (561·9–975·3) 38·4 (33·7 to 43·3)* 5·4 (1·9 to 9·0)* Stoma due to colon and rectum cancer 22·0 (21·3 to 22·8) 26·1 (25·0 to 27·2)* −4·9 (−5·7 to −4·1)* 3·0 (2·0–4·1)* 26·0 (20·7 to 31·6)* −4·7 (−9·4 to −0·0)* Liver cancer 618·7 (550·7 to 688·0) 59·8 (38·2 to 82·2)* 23·6 (6·8 to 40·6)* 188·2 (130·4–245·6) 25·2 (9·9 to 45·0)* −1·8 (−13·5 to 13·2) Liver cancer due to hepatitis B 305·9 (235·8 to 418·9) 20·6 (−9·1 to 63·2) −3·6 (−26·5 to 29·1) 59·9 (40·2–80·4) 9·5 (−8·3 to 34·1) −12·5 (−26·5 to 6·1) Liver cancer due to hepatitis C 268·7 (228·4 to 320·8) 80·1 (53·9 to 113·8)* 38·1 (17·1 to 65·1)* 44·3 (31·6–57·3) 47·7 (34·2 to 65·9)* 13·2 (2·7 to 27·7)* Liver cancer due to alcohol use 273·6 (229·0 to 350·7) 58·8 (28·9 to 94·8)* 22·1 (−0·3 to 49·1) 53·5 (37·3–70·1) 39·3 (22·1 to 61·6)* 7·2 (−5·8 to 23·5) Liver cancer due to other causes 151·0 (118·8 to 201·0) 24·9 (−5·6 to 63·5) −2·0 (−26·3 to 29·5) 30·5 (20·7–40·6) 12·1 (−4·5 to 32·8) −11·9 (−24·9 to 4·8) Gallbladder and biliary tract cancer 149·4 (138·5 to 158·9) 22·0 (14·4 to 30·1)* −7·4 (−13·2 to −1·3)* 39·5 (27·7–51·5) 19·0 (11·8 to 26·8)* −9·5 (−15·1 to −3·7)* Pancreatic cancer 393·8 (372·9 to 417·1) 46·2 (40·7 to 52·1)* 10·9 (6·7 to 15·4)* 86·6 (61·1–112·2) 38·4 (33·1 to 43·8)* 5·1 (1·1 to 9·3)* Larynx cancer 1412·6 (1340·0 to 1499·9) 26·2 (20·1 to 33·0)* −2·3 (−7·0 to 2·9) 147·3 (105·7–194·3) 24·0 (18·1 to 30·0)* −3·9 (−8·4 to 0·7) Larynx cancer aggregate 820·9 (749·1 to 911·1) 24·4 (14·2 to 35·8)* −4·9 (−12·5 to 3·4) 93·6 (67·4–121·5) 21·5 (12·7 to 30·8)* −6·8 (−13·1 to 0·2) Laryngectomy due to larynx cancer 591·0 (576·5 to 605·4) 28·7 (28·0 to 29·3)* 1·8 (1·3 to 2·4)* 53·7 (35·8–77·6) 28·6 (25·8 to 31·4)* 1·9 (−0·2 to 4·1) Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer 3299·7 (3095·1 to 3536·4) 37·7 (29·6 to 47·1)* 5·6 (−0·5 to 12·6) 513·6 (377·9–648·8) 31·1 (23·4 to 40·0)* 0·6 (−5·2 to 7·1) Malignant skin melanoma 3082·3 (2475·8 to 3901·7) 59·0 (50·7 to 67·0)* 26·2 (19·5 to 32·6)* 180·5 (120·8–257·6) 56·3 (47·9 to 64·0)* 23·7 (16·9 to 29·9)* Non-melanoma skin cancer 2558·2 (2494·8 to 2625·6) 76·8 (72·0 to 81·6)* 34·5 (30·8 to 38·2)* 148·0 (104·7–197·7) 82·9 (72·7 to 93·9)* 40·1 (31·9 to 48·7)* Non-melanoma skin cancer (squamous-cell carcinoma) 2155·9 (2019·5 to 2312·2) 93·5 (82·2 to 105·8)* 49·6 (40·5 to 59·2)* 142·0 (100·7–187·1) 86·4 (75·6 to 98·2)* 42·8 (34·2 to 52·1)* Non-melanoma skin cancer (basal-cell carcinoma) 578·1 (497·7 to 671·7) 27·0 (24·0 to 29·7)* −3·9 (−6·0 to −1·8)* 6·0 (2·9–11·1) 26·9 (23·5 to 30·1)* −3·8 (−6·4 to −1·2)* Breast cancer 21 361·8 (20 249·5 to 22 266·3) 41·5 (33·4 to 49·6)* 9·9 (4·1 to 15·7)* 1796·5 (1270·7–2411·6) 36·1 (29·2 to 42·7)* 5·3 (0·4 to 10·1)* Breast cancer aggregate 10 718·5 (9581·7 to 11 667·2) 62·7 (42·9 to 83·3)* 32·0 (16·2 to 48·1)* 989·8 (719·8–1271·0) 46·6 (32·7 to 61·5)* 15·8 (5·3 to 27·5)* Mastectomy due to breast cancer 10 638·5 (10 404·8 to 10 894·5) 25·1 (24·1 to 26·1)* −4·7 (−5·4 to −3·9)* 806·8 (520·3–1171·8) 25·1 (24·0 to 26·2)* −4·6 (−5·5 to −3·8)* Cervical cancer 3442·4 (3129·9 to 3765·0) −1·6 (−11·4 to 9·8) −20·5 (−28·2 to −11·5)* 264·0 (187·9–342·6) −1·4 (−10·9 to 9·8) −20·5 (−28·0 to −11·6)* Uterine cancer 3827·7 (3425·6 to 4285·2) 39·5 (22·9 to 55·9)* 8·2 (−4·0 to 20·0) 250·2 (172·4–341·0) 37·1 (21·1 to 52·9)* 6·1 (−5·4 to 17·6) Ovarian cancer 1174·2 (1107·4 to 1250·1) 28·3 (20·8 to 36·3)* 0·3 (−5·1 to 6·3) 150·7 (110·5–192·3) 25·8 (17·8 to 33·9)* −1·7 (−7·4 to 4·3) Prostate cancer 14 434·4 (11 932·2 to 19 785·1) 70·6 (61·6 to 81·4)* 29·7 (22·5 to 38·4)* 1150·3 (804·9–1 643·3) 60·5 (51·7 to 70·6)* 21·5 (14·5 to 29·6)* Prostate cancer aggregate 13 492·3 (10 984·7 to 18 837·5) 74·6 (64·7 to 86·3)* 32·5 (24·6 to 42·1)* 1069·7 (739·5–1 543·7) 63·5 (53·7 to 74·9)* 23·5 (15·8 to 32·6)* Impotence and incontinence due to prostate cancer aggregate 942·0 (927·1 to 957·3) 29·0 (28·6 to 29·4)* −0·9 (−1·2 to −0·5)* 80·6 (55·2–111·8) 28·9 (27·1 to 30·5)* −1·0 (−2·4 to 0·2) Testicular cancer 685·8 (634·7 to 732·4) 41·9 (30·8 to 52·4)* 23·4 (13·9 to 32·2)* 42·1 (28·4–58·3) 40·3 (29·3 to 50·6)* 21·5 (11·9 to 30·4)* Kidney cancer 2870·3 (2728·0 to 3031·5) 57·9 (50·0 to 66·0)* 22·8 (16·8 to 29·1)* 202·7 (145·7–270·5) 54·4 (46·9 to 61·8)* 19·8 (14·0 to 25·6)* Bladder cancer 3407·9 (3240·0 to 3603·3) 35·7 (28·6 to 43·3)* 3·3 (−2·0 to 9·0) 267·0 (193·7–349·4) 32·1 (25·8 to 38·8)* 0·7 (−4·0 to 5·6) Bladder cancer episodes aggregate 3273·4 (3 105·3 to 3 470·7) 36·3 (28·9 to 44·3)* 3·7 (−1·8 to 9·6) 244·1 (176·2–317·4) 33·1 (26·1 to 40·4)* 1·2 (−3·9 to 6·7) Urinary incontinence due to bladder cancer 134·3 (129·7 to 139·4) 22·8 (22·0 to 23·7)* −5·7 (−6·2 to −5·1)* 22·9 (15·9–31·2) 23·0 (18·7 to 27·1)* −5·3 (−8·6 to −2·2)* Brain and nervous system cancer 1205·1 (1101·7 to 1322·9) 25·3 (14·9 to 37·6)* 4·2 (−3·9 to 13·8) 126·1 (90·3–164·5) 24·7 (15·0 to 36·3)* 2·8 (−4·7 to 12·0) Thyroid cancer 3166·5 (2936·7 to 3340·6) 101·1 (86·4 to 112·9)* 60·8 (48·9 to 70·2)* 190·0 (132·5–259·3) 96·8 (81·6 to 109·2)* 56·5 (44·3 to 66·3)* Mesothelioma 60·8 (58·1 to 63·6) 41·3 (35·1 to 47·7)* 9·5 (4·6 to 14·5)* 12·2 (8·7–15·8) 39·5 (32·1 to 46·8)* 7·9 (2·1 to 13·9)* Hodgkin’s lymphoma 574·4 (519·0 to 672·9) 17·8 (10·5 to 25·3)* 0·0 (−6·1 to 6·4) 48·5 (33·7–65·8) 14·6 (7·4 to 21·7)* −3·6 (−9·6 to 2·4)* Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 4292·3 (3741·0 to 4593·6) 63·5 (47·5 to 74·3)* 30·5 (19·1 to 38·4)* 312·3 (221·8–414·2) 57·9 (43·8 to 67·8)* 25·6 (15·1 to 33·1)* Multiple myeloma 488·2 (449·4 to 527·7) 54·6 (44·8 to 64·5)* 18·0 (10·7 to 25·4)* 104·0 (73·6–134·8) 49·0 (40·0 to 58·5)* 13·6 (6·9 to 21·0)* Leukaemia 2303·6 (2216·1 to 2384·5) 35·8 (29·7 to 41·8)* 10·2 (5·7 to 14·8)* 379·4 (276·2–488·9) 28·6 (21·2 to 36·9)* 4·3 (−1·1 to 10·4) Acute lymphoid leukaemia 875·5 (709·0 to 1072·3) 25·4 (7·3 to 46·4)* 10·2 (−5·0 to 27·8) 97·3 (68·0–129·8) 25·7 (11·5 to 40·8)* 8·1 (−3·1 to 20·0) Chronic lymphoid leukaemia 904·0 (833·2 to 974·4) 31·7 (22·2 to 42·9)* 4·5 (−2·2 to 12·4) 119·8 (87·2–152·9) 27·6 (18·9 to 37·4)* 0·5 (−6·0 to 7·7) Acute myeloid leukaemia 999·3 (882·5 to 1136·8) 38·4 (26·6 to 50·7)* 14·2 (5·7 to 23·5)* 120·9 (87·3–155·6) 36·5 (27·5 to 45·6)* 10·4 (3·7 to 17·4)* Chronic myeloid leukaemia 297·7 (271·8 to 324·7) 22·2 (14·3 to 31·0)* −3·4 (−9·3 to 3·4) 41·4 (29·5–53·6) 17·7 (10·2 to 26·0)* −7·5 (−13·3 to −1·2)* Other neoplasms 4577·5 (4145·5 to 4922·0) 36·1 (27·2 to 44·5)* 10·9 (4·1 to 17·6)* 323·2 (228·6–431·8) 34·4 (26·2 to 42·6)* 9·0 (2·4 to 15·4)* Cardiovascular diseases 422 738·4 (415 534·5 to 427 870·8) 24·8 (24·0 to 25·6)* −1·8 (−2·5 to −1·2)* 25 620·1 (18 401·6–33 656·6) 23·5 (21·7 to 24·5)* −2·2 (−3·2 to −1·7)* Rheumatic heart disease 33 438·8 (29 725·7 to 43 119·8) −4·7 (−11·0 to 0·1) −16·3 (−22·5 to −12·1)* 1654·7 (1041·4–2530·9) −3·4 (−9·9 to 1·4) −15·4 (−21·5 to −11·1)* Rheumatic heart disease, without heart failure 32 236·8 (28 520·8 to 41 912·7) −5·6 (−11·9 to −0·8)* −16·9 (−23·1 to −12·7)* 1518·6 (941·1–2356·4) −5·5 (−11·7 to −0·6)* −16·8 (−22·9 to −12·3)* Heart failure due to rheumatic heart disease aggregate 1202·0 (1138·2 to 1269·0) 29·8 (28·5 to 31·2)* 2·2 (1·3 to 3·2)* 136·1 (94·5–187·6) 29·6 (27·2 to 32·1)* 2·4 (0·6 to 4·2)* Ischaemic heart disease 110 550·3 (100 675·9 to 121 798·7) 25·9 (24·6 to 27·2)* −3·4 (−4·2 to −2·6)* 7274·7 (4958·6–9940·3) 30·2 (29·1 to 31·3)* −0·3 (−1·0 to 0·3) Myocardial infarction episodes aggregate 15 930·1 (14 106·5 to 17 764·0) 6·4 (1·9 to 10·6)* −18·1 (−21·6 to −14·8)* 33·0 (23·0–44·9) 15·2 (12·6 to 17·9)* −13·1 (−15·1 to −11·1)* Angina due to ischaemic heart disease aggregate 72 344·6 (62 699·8 to 83 460·0) 29·3 (27·7 to 30·7)* −0·3 (−1·2 to 0·5) 4794·5 (3100·7–6633·6) 29·5 (27·8 to 31·0)* −0·0 (−1·0 to 0·8) Heart failure due to ischaemic heart disease aggregate 22 275·7 (21 272·0 to 23 320·4) 31·9 (31·1 to 32·7)* −0·6 (−1·2 to −0·1)* 2447·2 (1736·8–3342·6) 31·9 (31·0 to 32·8)* −0·5 (−1·1 to 0·1) Cerebrovascular disease 42 430·9 (42 068·2 to 42 767·1) 21·0 (20·4 to 21·5)* −4·4 (−4·8 to −3·9)* 6455·2 (4487·0–8609·6) 20·7 (19·8 to 21·6)* −4·2 (−4·9 to −3·5)* Ischaemic stroke 24 929·0 (24 362·2 to 25 610·0) 21·8 (21·0 to 22·6)* −5·2 (−5·8 to −4·6)* 3660·0 (2559·3–4874·9) 22·0 (21·0 to 23·0)* −4·9 (−5·7 to −4·2)* Chronic ischaemic stroke aggregate 24 663·2 (24 092·1 to 25 345·8) 21·9 (21·1 to 22·7)* −5·1 (−5·8 to −4·5)* 3605·1 (2512·6–4815·3) 22·1 (21·1 to 23·1)* −4·9 (−5·6 to −4·1)* Ischaemic stroke episodes aggregate 265·8 (246·6 to 285·1) 16·8 (14·2 to 19·7)* −10·6 (−12·7 to −8·5)* 54·9 (36·3–74·5) 17·5 (13·8 to 20·9)* −10·0 (−12·9 to −7·2)* Haemorrhagic stroke 18 669·6 (18 258·7 to 19 124·5) 19·2 (18·5 to 19·9)* −3·3 (−3·8 to −2·7)* 2795·2 (1945·8–3749·6) 19·1 (18·1 to 20·2)* −3·1 (−3·9 to −2·3)* Chronic haemorrhagic stroke aggregate 18 494·8 (18 088·5 to 18 959·5) 19·3 (18·6 to 19·9)* −3·2 (−3·8 to −2·6)* 2757·3 (1918·2–3700·6) 19·2 (18·1 to 20·3)* −3·0 (−3·8 to −2·2)* Acute haemorrhagic stroke aggregate 174·8 (162·3 to 187·8) 14·3 (11·6 to 16·6)* −9·1 (−11·1 to −7·3)* 37·9 (24·7–51·2) 14·6 (11·8 to 17·0)* −8·8 (−11·0 to −6·9)* Hypertensive heart disease 6086·2 (5732·7 to 6434·1) 37·1 (36·2 to 37·9)* 3·4 (2·9 to 3·9)* 670·0 (467·1–917·1) 37·2 (35·9 to 38·4)* 3·6 (2·8 to 4·4)* Cardiomyopathy and myocarditis 2536·8 (2404·8 to 2661·4) 26·7 (25·6 to 27·7)* −1·3 (−2·0 to −0·7)* 275·1 (190·3–377·9) 26·3 (24·6 to 28·1)* −1·3 (−2·5 to −0·2)* Acute myocarditis 156·3 (137·1 to 179·6) 21·4 (19·1 to 23·7)* 2·2 (1·3 to 3·1)* 7·8 (4·8–11·6) 21·1 (18·5 to 23·9)* 2·1 (0·3 to 3·8)* Heart failure due to cardiomyopathy aggregate 2380·4 (2254·3 to 2502·2) 27·0 (25·9 to 28·1)* −1·5 (−2·2 to −0·9)* 267·3 (185·9–367·9) 26·5 (24·7 to 28·3)* −1·4 (−2·6 to −0·2)* Atrial fibrillation and flutter 33 294·3 (29 959·8 to 37 202·0) 28·2 (27·2 to 29·1)* −2·5 (−3·1 to −1·9)* 2634·6 (1782·6–3637·3) 28·2 (27·1 to 29·3)* −2·4 (−3·1 to −1·7)* Peripheral vascular disease 154 650·6 (136 318·0 to 176 210·9) 34·4 (33·4 to 35·2)* 1·8 (1·3 to 2·3)* 572·8 (272·1–1056·2) 34·5 (32·4 to 36·8)* 2·0 (1·2 to 2·8)* Endocarditis 115·7 (108·1 to 124·8) 22·7 (20·9 to 24·5)* −5·4 (−6·7 to −4·1)* 12·3 (8·5–17·1) 22·9 (18·6 to 27·6)* −5·2 (−8·8 to −1·2)* Endocarditis episodes aggregate 16·9 (15·7 to 18·2) 22·8 (20·3 to 25·3)* −0·7 (−2·7 to 1·2) 1·0 (0·6–1·4) 22·7 (20·0 to 25·3)* −0·9 (−3·1 to 1·2) Heart failure due to endocarditis aggregate 98·8 (91·1 to 107·6) 22·7 (20·7 to 24·7)* −6·1 (−7·6 to −4·6)* 11·4 (7·9–15·9) 22·9 (18·3 to 28·0)* −5·5 (−9·3 to −1·2)* Heart failure due to other cardiovascular diseases aggregate 1126·5 (1045·9 to 1206·1) 34·4 (33·3 to 35·6)* 1·2 (0·4 to 2·0)* 123·7 (86·0–173·3) 34·4 (32·5 to 36·5)* 1·3 (−0·2 to 2·7) Other cardiovascular diseases episodes aggregate 89 221·1 (83 635·8 to 95 470·4) 24·0 (22·6 to 25·4)* 0·4 (−0·2 to 1·0)* 5947·0 (4074·6–8105·9) 23·7 (22·2 to 25·2)* 0·5 (−0·2 to 1·1) Chronic respiratory diseases 514 625·8 (503 322·3 to 527 617·0) 12·1 (11·1 to 13·1)* −3·3 (−4·1 to −2·4)* 30 465·9 (23 341·4–38 294·2) 11·8 (10·2 to 13·6)* −4·6 (−6·2 to −3·1)* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 174 483·1 (160 204·9 to 188 951·7) 17·0 (15·1 to 19·0)* −5·8 (−7·3 to −4·4)* 12 047·0 (10 206·8–13 725·4) 16·2 (13·4 to 18·8)* −5·9 (−8·0 to −3·9)* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease without heart failure aggregate 168 694·6 (154 443·1 to 182 957·1) 16·5 (14·5 to 18·5)* −6·1 (−7·6 to −4·6)* 9671·6 (8183·6–11 080·9) 12·3 (9·2 to 15·3)* −8·0 (−10·5 to −5·6)* Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with heart failure aggregate 5876·4 (5073·7 to 6548·3) 34·9 (31·1 to 37·8)* 2·4 (−0·3 to 4·2) 2375·5 (1890·3–2747·2) 35·1 (31·4 to 38·2)* 2·5 (−0·0 to 4·5) Pneumoconiosis 2405·8 (2317·2 to 2486·3) 30·3 (27·8 to 32·9)* 8·2 (6·2 to 10·2)* 474·0 (305·6–682·6) 26·6 (23·6 to 29·3)* 6·0 (3·6 to 8·4)* Silicosis 402·9 (364·9 to 442·2) 18·1 (15·7 to 20·3)* −4·3 (−6·1 to −2·6)* 65·7 (41·7–95·4) 18·5 (14·5 to 22·4)* −3·9 (−7·0 to −0·9)* Silicosis without heart failure aggregate 389·0 (351·0 to 426·8) 17·6 (15·2 to 19·9)* −4·6 (−6·4 to −2·8)* 59·2 (36·8–87·9) 17·1 (12·7 to 21·3)* −4·7 (−8·0 to −1·5)* Severe silicosis with heart failure aggregate 13·9 (12·0 to 15·6) 32·2 (29·1 to 34·8)* 1·5 (−0·5 to 3·3) 6·4 (4·5–8·5) 33·1 (26·9 to 40·5)* 2·3 (−2·7 to 7·9) Asbestosis 157·3 (144·8 to 170·9) 30·6 (28·8 to 32·6)* 2·7 (1·3 to 4·1)* 24·8 (16·0–35·6) 30·2 (27·0 to 33·6)* 2·5 (−0·1 to 5·2) Asbestosis without heart failure aggregate 154·5 (141·8 to 168·1) 30·6 (28·7 to 32·5)* 2·7 (1·3 to 4·1)* 23·5 (15·0–34·0) 29·9 (26·4 to 33·4)* 2·5 (−0·2 to 5·4) Severe asbestosis with heart failure aggregate 2·8 (2·6 to 3·0) 35·6 (34·2 to 37·1)* 1·1 (0·1 to 2·1)* 1·3 (0·9–1·7)* 35·7 (31·3 to 40·0)* 1·3 (−2·2 to 4·7) Coal workers pneumoconiosis 84·2 (76·7 to 93·6) 37·0 (34·1 to 39·9)* 7·6 (5·2 to 10·0)* 13·3 (8·4–19·1)* 36·3 (29·4 to 43·4)* 7·0 (1·3 to 12·9)* Coal workers pneumoconiosis without heart failure aggregate 82·3 (74·9 to 91·7) 36·9 (34·0 to 39·8)* 7·5 (5·2 to 10·0)* 12·4 (7·8–17·9)* 36·0 (28·6 to 43·5)* 6·9 (0·9 to 13·2)* Severe coal workers pneumoconiosis with heart failure aggregate 1·9 (1·6 to 2·1) 41·6 (37·8 to 45·1)* 8·2 (5·4 to 10·9)* 0·9 (0·6–1·2)* 41·6 (37·7 to 45·2)* 8·2 (5·2 to 10·9)* Other pneumoconiosis 2388·6 (2164·7 to 2629·1) 27·9 (25·3 to 30·7)* 8·3 (6·0 to 10·5)* 370·2 (239·2–533·9)* 27·5 (23·9 to 31·0)* 8·3 (5·3 to 11·2)* Other pneumoconiosis without heart failure aggregate 2374·2 (2150·3 to 2615·1) 27·8 (25·2 to 30·7)* 8·3 (6·0 to 10·6)* 363·6 (234·0–524·9)* 27·3 (23·6 to 30·8)* 8·4 (5·3 to 11·4)* Severe other pneumoconiosis with heart failure aggregate 14·4 (13·1 to 15·6) 41·1 (39·0 to 43·0)* 4·5 (3·4 to 5·5)* 6·5 (4·6–8·5) 40·5 (35·1 to 45·7)* 4·3 (0·3 to 8·4)* Asthma 358 197·9 (323 133·7 to 393 465·6) 9·5 (7·6 to 11·6)* −2·5 (−4·3 to −0·5)* 15 898·9 (10 371·0–22 344·1) 9·4 (7·4 to 11·5)* −2·3 (−4·3 to −0·3)* Asymptomatic asthma 108 461·1 (92 842·5 to 126 250·5) 9·5 (7·6 to 11·6)* −2·5 (−4·3 to −0·5)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) Symptomatic asthma aggregate 249 736·8 (220 469·6 to 278 419·7) 9·5 (7·6 to 11·6)* −2·5 (−4·3 to −0·5)* 15 898·9 (10 371·0–22 344·1) 9·4 (7·4 to 11·5)* −2·3 (−4·3 to −0·3)* Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis 1916·0 (1757·4 to 2075·5) 25·8 (23·8 to 27·7)* 0·6 (−0·9 to 2·1) 234·7 (147·5–334·2) 25·7 (23·5 to 28·1)* 0·7 (−1·1 to 2·6) Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis without heart failure aggregate 1718·7 (1565·7 to 1881·0) 25·2 (23·1 to 27·2)* 0·5 (−1·1 to 2·1) 148·5 (88·8–221·4) 22·7 (19·6 to 25·9)* 0·2 (−2·2 to 2·6) Severe interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis with heart failure aggregate 197·4 (144·1 to 242·7) 31·5 (29·7 to 33·2)* 1·3 (−0·1 to 2·9) 86·2 (54·8–117·6) 31·3 (28·6 to 34·1)* 1·3 (−1·0 to 3·7) Other chronic respiratory diseases .. .. .. 1811·3 (1483·7–2123·4) 1·7 (−7·3 to 12·2) −15·8 (−23·5 to −6·9)* Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases 2828·3 (2791·3 to 2862·3)* 34·0 (32·4 to 35·8)* 8·2 (7·0 to 9·5)* 501·0 (352·9–683·1) 31·3 (29·8 to 32·9)* 7·3 (6·1 to 8·4)* Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases due to hepatitis B 796·5 (737·6 to 857·3) 30·5 (28·4 to 32·7)* 4·7 (3·2 to 6·2)* 130·6 (88·7–178·7) 30·5 (27·0 to 33·8)* 4·8 (2·2 to 7·3)* Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases due to hepatitis C 680·8 (628·3 to 734·2) 35·3 (33·0 to 37·5)* 7·6 (6·0 to 9·1)* 111·4 (78·2–152·6) 35·2 (31·6 to 38·6)* 7·6 (5·0 to 10·3)* Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases due to alcohol use 815·6 (758·7 to 877·2) 37·3 (35·4 to 39·3)* 9·8 (8·5 to 11·2)* 133·9 (92·5–185·1) 37·2 (33·9 to 40·5)* 9·9 (7·5 to 12·4)* Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases due to other causes 750·3 (714·3 to 785·9) 23·8 (22·5 to 25·1)* 6·8 (5·9 to 7·6)* 125·0 (87·5–172·2) 23·3 (20·1 to 26·8)* 6·8 (4·2 to 9·5)* Digestive diseases 258 248·2 (255 386·4 to 260 843·9) 12·3 (10·9 to 13·7)* −9·4 (−10·4 to −8·3)* 12 142·8 (8 492·0–16 592·5) 11·4 (9·8 to 13·2)* −9·3 (−10·6 to −7·9)* Peptic ulcer disease 72 044·2 (71 302·7 to 72 763·7) 4·8 (3·7 to 6·0)* −17·0 (−17·8 to −16·0)* 2341·7 (1605·6–3293·6) 1·1 (−0·2 to 2·5) −19·5 (−20·6 to −18·4)* Peptic ulcer disease symptomatic episodes 4977·7 (4577·6 to 5379·5) 4·7 (2·4 to 6·9)* −16·7 (−18·4 to −15·0)* 518·7 (357·9–703·2) 4·5 (2·2 to 6·8)* −16·7 (−18·5 to −14·9)* Anaemia due to peptic ulcer disease aggregate 67 066·6 (66 465·4 to 67 616·9) 4·8 (3·7 to 6·1)* −17·0 (−17·9 to −16·0)* 1823·1 (1225·8–2621·2) 0·2 (−1·4 to 1·9) −20·3 (−21·6 to −19·0)* Gastritis and duodenitis 161 001·1 (157 928·3 to 164 071·1) 15·5 (13·0 to 17·9)* −6·9 (−8·8 to −5·0)* 4913·0 (3347·3–6967·1) 11·2 (8·0 to 14·6)* −9·5 (−11·9 to −6·9)* Gastritis and duodenitis, symptomatic episodes 3941·0 (3547·0 to 4358·9) 15·4 (10·9 to 17·3)* −6·9 (−10·8 to −5·7)* 416·0 (277·1–567·9) 15·4 (11·2 to 17·5)* −6·7 (−10·6 to −5·2)* Anaemia due to gastritis and duodenitis aggregate 157 060·1 (154 055·1 to 160 141·0) 15·5 (12·9 to 17·9)* −6·9 (−8·9 to −5·0)* 4497·1 (3050·6–6393·0) 10·8 (7·4 to 14·5)* −9·8 (−12·4 to −7·0)* Appendicitis 442·1 (414·6 to 472·3) 14·3 (13·4 to 15·2)* 2·8 (2·1 to 3·4)* 136·0 (92·0–184·6) 14·4 (10·6 to 18·0)* 3·0 (−0·2 to 6·1) Paralytic ileus and intestinal obstruction 119·7 (110·7 to 130·4) 18·9 (16·9 to 20·7)* −1·3 (−2·8 to −0·0)* 37·3 (25·1–51·1) 18·6 (15·9 to 21·2)* −1·1 (−3·4 to 1·2) Inguinal, femoral, and abdominal hernia 18 476·7 (16 577·2 to 20 339·8) 6·5 (4·2 to 8·6)* −10·6 (−12·4 to −9·0)* 195·8 (97·0–363·1) 6·5 (4·3 to 8·7)* −10·4 (−12·2 to −8·8)* Inflammatory bowel disease 11 223·5 (10 396·8 to 12 000·4) 15·7 (15·0 to 16·3)* −3·7 (−4·1 to −3·4)* 2387·1 (1653·2–3 263·5) 15·6 (14·7 to 16·4)* −3·6 (−4·2 to −3·0)* Vascular intestinal disorders 35·1 (32·4 to 38·1) 23·3 (21·0 to 25·8)* −2·4 (−4·1 to −0·6)* 11·0 (7·4–14·8) 23·4 (19·7 to 27·2)* −2·0 (−5·2 to 1·2) Gallbladder and biliary diseases 5656·5 (5199·3 to 6168·1) 16·9 (14·5 to 19·2)* −4·1 (−5·9 to −2·2)* 601·0 (409·4–826·4) 16·8 (14·2 to 19·3)* −3·9 (−5·9 to −1·9)* Pancreatitis 1018·2 (941·6 to 1 097·4) 24·2 (21·7 to 26·5)* 1·9 (−0·0 to 3·7) 300·0 (203·4–406·7) 24·0 (20·3 to 27·4)* 2·0 (−0·8 to 4·6) Other digestive diseases .. .. .. 1219·9 (838·5–1677·5) 21·9 (14·4 to 32·4)* −1·0 (−7·1 to 7·4) Neurological disorders 2 261 316·4 (2 204 366·6 to 2 316 282·6) 15·5 (14·6 to 16·4)* 0·5 (−0·3 to 1·2) 59 325·6 (40 845·0–81 083·3) 15·6 (14·3 to 16·9)* −1·4 (−2·4 to −0·4)* Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias 45 956·3 (40 178·5 to 52 655·9) 37·7 (36·2 to 39·0)* 1·1 (0·3 to 1·8)* 6851·2 (4883·9–9062·8) 38·8 (37·1 to 40·5)* 1·1 (0·2 to 1·8)* Parkinson’s disease 6193·3 (5725·7 to 6777·2) 31·6 (28·2 to 35·5)* 0·6 (−1·9 to 3·5) 737·8 (516·1–990·1) 31·4 (27·8 to 35·3)* 0·7 (−2·1 to 3·7) Epilepsy 23 414·5 (21 549·6 to 25 419·4) 11·3 (7·0 to 15·5)* −1·1 (−5·0 to 2·7) 6286·9 (4315·8–8250·2) −6·4 (−11·5 to −1·2)* −16·3 (−20·9 to −11·6)* Multiple sclerosis 2012·0 (1865·7 to 2166·9) 19·1 (17·0 to 21·3)* −2·0 (−3·9 to −0·3)* 667·5 (472·0–855·6) 18·8 (16·2 to 21·5)* −2·0 (−4·2 to 0·1) Motor neuron disease 202·4 (189·7 to 216·0) 22·3 (19·9 to 24·8)* −1·3 (−3·3 to 0·7) 42·3 (30·5–55·1) 22·1 (19·5 to 24·8)* −1·4 (−3·5 to 0·8) Migraine 958 789·2 (872 109·0 to 1 055 630·6) 15·3 (14·0 to 16·6)* 0·6 (−0·3 to 1·5) 32 898·8 (20 303·6–48 883·2) 15·3 (14·0 to 16·6)* 0·8 (−0·1 to 1·8) Tension-type headache 1 505 892·3 (1 337 310·0 to 1 681 575·0) 15·3 (14·0 to 16·6)* 0·5 (−0·1 to 1·1) 2260·5 (1058·1–4169·7) 15·3 (14·0 to 16·7)* 0·6 (−0·1 to 1·3) Medication overuse headache 58 454·5 (50 834·9 to 67 363·9) 19·0 (15·4 to 22·7)* 0·4 (−2·4 to 3·3) 9164·7 (6094·5–13 078·0) 18·9 (15·4 to 22·8)* 0·6 (−2·3 to 3·5) Other neurological disorders 11·5 (9·1 to 14·6) 17·0 (14·8 to 19·6)* −0·2 (−0·9 to 0·4) 415·9 (301·2–547·5) 32·2 (27·5 to 36·3)* −2·1 (−5·3 to 0·9) Mental and substance use disorders 1 058 903·8 (1 038 544·9 to 1 080 413·8) 14·3 (13·6 to 14·9)* 0·3 (−0·3 to 0·9) 149 977·9 (108 716·1–193 130·8) 16·1 (15·5 to 16·8)* 1·1 (0·7 to 1·4)* Schizophrenia 23 383·0 (20 608·0 to 26 418·4) 19·5 (18·6 to 20·4)* 0·1 (−0·4 to 0·6) 15 020·5 (10 816·1–18 623·2) 19·5 (18·5 to 20·4)* 0·3 (−0·4 to 0·9) Alcohol use disorders 63 469·5 (57 507·8 to 69 863·5) 11·1 (8·9 to 13·5)* −4·6 (−6·5 to −2·4)* 6321·3 (4205·6–8985·8)* 11·1 (9·0 to 13·6)* −4·5 (−6·4 to −2·3)* Alcohol dependence aggregate 62 575·3 (56 621·7 to 68 944·3) 11·1 (8·9 to 13·5)* −4·6 (−6·6 to −2·5)* 6276·2 (4167·7–8929·7) 11·1 (8·9 to 13·6)* −4·5 (−6·5 to −2·3)* Fetal alcohol syndrome aggregate 894·2 (833·3 to 951·9) 11·1 (10·3 to 11·7)* −0·5 (−1·1 to 0·2) 45·1 (29·2–65·1) 10·7 (8·2 to 13·1)* −0·6 (−2·7 to 1·6) Drug use disorders 46 388·6 (45 252·4 to 47 446·6) 16·3 (15·0 to 17·6)* 3·9 (2·8 to 5·0)* 9849·4 (6959·0–12775·2) 23·6 (21·5 to 25·9)* 8·2 (6·2 to 10·2)* Opioid use disorders 16 746·5 (14 659·3 to 19 107·5) 23·3 (20·7 to 26·0)* 6·4 (4·2 to 8·6)* 6969·6 (4842·5–8999·8) 23·3 (20·6 to 26·2)* 6·5 (4·2 to 9·0)* Asymptomatic opioid dependence 2716·8 (1979·9 to 3704·4) 23·3 (20·7 to 26·0)* 6·4 (4·2 to 8·6)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0)* Symptomatic opioid dependence aggregate 14 029·7 (12 042·2 to 16 122·8) 23·3 (20·7 to 26·0)* 6·4 (4·2 to 8·6)* 6969·6 (4842·5–8999·8) 23·3 (20·6 to 26·2)* 6·5 (4·2 to 9·0) Cocaine use disorders 3846·3 (3401·6 to 4309·8) 31·1 (28·0 to 34·3)* 14·1 (12·0 to 16·4)* 521·5 (329·0–733·9) 30·6 (27·2 to 34·4)* 14·0 (11·4 to 17·0)* Asymptomatic cocaine dependence 1927·8 (1544·3 to 2357·8) 31·1 (28·0 to 34·3)* 14·1 (12·0 to 16·4)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) Symptomatic cocaine dependence aggregate 1918·5 (1542·1 to 2341·9) 31·1 (28·0 to 34·3)* 14·1 (12·0 to 16·4)* 521·5 (329·0–733·9) 30·6 (27·2 to 34·4)* 14·0 (11·4 to 17·0)* Amphetamine use disorders 6599·8 (5295·7 to 8024·4) 30·4 (27·0 to 34·2)* 19·2 (16·1 to 22·5)* 874·7 (513·4–1308·7) 30·3 (26·1 to 34·8)* 19·1 (15·5 to 23·0)* Asymptomatic amphetamine dependence 3613·7 (2722·6 to 4630·7) 30·4 (27·0 to 34·2)* 19·2 (16·1 to 22·5)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) Symptomatic amphetamine dependence aggregate 2986·1 (2186·5 to 3 893·0) 30·4 (27·0 to 34·2)* 19·2 (16·1 to 22·5)* 874·7 (513·4–1 308·7) 30·3 (26·1 to 34·8)* 19·1 (15·5 to 23·0)* Cannabis use disorders 19 762·5 (17 982·4 to 21 770·2) 5·3 (4·0 to 6·5)* −3·8 (−4·7 to −2·9)* 577·2 (371·8–816·2) 5·3 (3·7 to 7·1)* −3·7 (−5·0 to −2·3)* Asymptomatic cannabis dependence 11 430·9 (10 159·4 to 12 892·9) 5·3 (4·0 to 6·5)* −3·8 (−4·7 to −2·9)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) Symptomatic cannabis dependence aggregate 8331·6 (7244·3 to 9593·1) 5·3 (4·0 to 6·5)* −3·8 (−4·7 to −2·9)* 577·2 (371·8–816·2) 5·3 (3·7 to 7·1)* −3·7 (−5·0 to −2·3)* Other drug use disorders .. .. .. 906·4 (550·1–1 312·1) 30·5 (25·7 to 35·6)* 17·2 (12·9 to 21·7)* Depressive disorders 311 147·6 (300 016·8 to 320 544·3) 18·4 (17·2 to 19·5)* 0·7 (−0·3 to 1·6) 54 255·4 (37 569·9–72 943·3) 18·2 (17·2 to 19·2)* 1·0 (0·5 to 1·5)* Major depressive disorder 216 047·0 (192 863·4 to 243 319·4) 17·8 (16·6 to 19·0)* 0·8 (0·2 to 1·4)* 44 224·4 (29 672·5–60 297·0) 17·8 (16·6 to 19·0)* 1·1 (0·5 to 1·7)* Dysthymia 104 106·3 (90 398·1 to 118 968·9) 19·9 (18·4 to 21·5)* 0·6 (−0·3 to 1·4) 10 031·0 (6 605·9–14 267·1) 19·8 (18·3 to 21·5)* 0·7 (−0·2 to 1·6) Bipolar disorder 44 015·8 (38 150·4 to 50 912·5) 14·9 (14·1 to 15·8)* 0·3 (0·1 to 0·5)* 9004·7 (5501·7–13 388·0) 14·9 (13·9 to 15·9)* 0·5 (−0·0 to 0·9) Anxiety disorders 267 202·4 (234 064·3 to 306 318·0) 14·9 (13·0 to 16·8)* 0·8 (−0·5 to 2·1) 24 643·0 (16 813·7–33 647·8) 14·8 (12·8 to 16·6)* 1·0 (−0·4 to 2·3) Eating disorders 6468·4 (6170·6 to 6753·6) 19·1 (16·5 to 21·8)* 9·9 (7·5 to 12·4)* 1386·1 (915·9–1941·2) 19·0 (16·9 to 21·2)* 10·0 (8·1 to 11·9)* Anorexia nervosa 2912·1 (2357·7 to 3596·2) 12·0 (9·3 to 14·8)* 5·1 (2·6 to 7·6)* 620·5 (411·3–897·7) 12·1 (9·0 to 15·1)* 5·2 (2·3 to 8·0)* Bulimia nervosa 3629·4 (2937·5 to 4406·8) 25·3 (23·6 to 27·1)* 14·2 (12·5 to 15·8)* 765·6 (490·0–1108·5) 25·3 (23·2 to 27·6)* 14·2 (12·2 to 16·2)* Autistic spectrum disorders 62 212·4 (58 979·0 to 64 744·3) 12·3 (10·5 to 14·1)* 0·3 (−1·2 to 1·9) 10 051·5 (6740·1–13800·3) 12·3 (11·9 to 12·8)* 0·6 (0·2 to 0·9)* Autism 24 790·1 (20 957·6 to 29 393·1) 12·6 (12·2 to 12·9)* 0·5 (0·3 to 0·7)* 6335·9 (4112·0–8916·1) 12·5 (11·9 to 13·1)* 0·7 (0·2 to 1·2)* Asperger syndrome and other autistic spectrum disorders 37 245·4 (31 510·5 to 44 883·1) 12·1 (11·8 to 12·4)* 0·2 (0·1 to 0·3)* 3715·6 (2479·6–5424·6) 12·0 (11·5 to 12·5)* 0·3 (−0·1 to 0·7) Attention-deficit or hyperactivity disorder 51 094·3 (46 162·4 to 57 267·7) 0·3 (−0·4 to 1·0) −3·6 (−4·2 to −3·0)* 620·1 (370·1–947·7) 0·4 (−0·6 to 1·2) −3·5 (−4·4 to −2·8)* Conduct disorder 48 135·5 (39 315·2 to 58 151·6) 0·4 (−0·1 to 1·1) 1·3 (0·9 to 1·6)* 5770·5 (3485·2–8955·7) 0·5 (−0·3 to 1·4) 1·4 (0·7 to 2·0)* Idiopathic developmental intellectual disability 92 074·0 (52 280·1 to 130 411·2) 10·9 (9·5 to 11·9)* 1·0 (0·0 to 1·8)* 3442·1 (1506·4–5996·9) 10·3 (8·2 to 11·4)* 0·2 (−1·5 to 1·2) Other mental and substance use disorders 128 178·3 (127 512·5 to 128 877·2) 18·8 (17·9 to 19·7)* 0·2 (−0·6 to 0·9) 9613·4 (6699·7–12 951·9) 18·7 (17·7 to 19·8)* 0·3 (−0·6 to 1·1) Diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases 2 944 626·8 (2 925 016·2 to 2 968 511·3) 15·5 (14·7 to 16·1)* −0·3 (−0·9 to 0·3) 66 092·7 (46 781·5–88 865·8) 22·3 (20·8 to 24·0)* 1·2 (0·1 to 2·3)* Diabetes 435 328·4 (404 736·1 to 468 562·4) 30·6 (28·0 to 33·0)* 4·5 (2·4 to 6·4)* 33 360·8 (23 043·5–45 530·8) 32·5 (29·7 to 35·3)* 5·4 (3·2 to 7·5)* Uncomplicated diabetes 271 713·6 (241 414·2 to 302 381·7) 27·8 (24·9 to 30·4)* 3·2 (1·1 to 5·3)* 12 599·0 (7979·9–18 394·2) 27·7 (24·8 to 30·3)* 3·3 (1·2 to 5·4)* Neuropathy and other complications of diabetes aggregate 159 067·7 (134 666·7 to 187 174·0) 35·6 (32·2 to 38·8)* 6·6 (4·1 to 9·0)* 20 459·6 (13 572·0–28 749·6) 35·6 (32·3 to 38·8)* 6·7 (4·2 to 9·0)* Vision loss due to diabetes aggregate 4547·1 (3823·8 to 5416·0) 34·7 (32·4 to 36·9)* 5·0 (3·6 to 6·3)* 302·3 (210·1–415·5) 36·1 (33·6 to 38·7)* 5·7 (4·1 to 7·4)* Acute glomerulonephritis 100·5 (92·1 to 110·1) −0·9 (−4·4 to 1·9) −14·5 (−17·3 to −12·6)* 5·0 (3·2–7·5) −0·6 (−4·6 to 2·8) −14·1 (−17·4 to −11·4)* Chronic kidney disease 322 510·6 (312 718·2 to 330 351·1) 26·9 (25·8 to 28·0)* 0·9 (−0·0 to 1·8) 8172·8 (6118·6–10 229·3) 23·8 (22·9 to 24·8)* 0·1 (−0·4 to 0·6) Chronic kidney disease due to diabetes 100 823·9 (86 922·7 to 115 652·3) 27·3 (24·9 to 29·9)* 2·1 (0·5 to 3·7)* 2456·1 (1780·4–3151·2) 23·0 (20·7 to 25·4)* 0·6 (−0·7 to 2·0) Stage 3 chronic kidney disease due to diabetes aggregate 90 937·7 (77 906·5 to 104 617·0) 27·9 (25·4 to 30·5)* 2·3 (0·6 to 4·0)* 119·6 (79·7–175·5) 11·8 (6·5 to 16·7)* −6·3 (−10·0 to −2·8)* Stage 4 chronic kidney disease due to diabetes aggregate 6441·3 (5521·3 to 7401·3) 21·6 (19·1 to 24·2)* 0·9 (−0·4 to 2·2) 787·7 (541·8–1 106·1) 20·2 (17·6 to 22·7)* 0·4 (−1·0 to 1·8) Stage 5 chronic kidney disease untreated due to diabetes 2694·4 (2331·9 to 3091·5) 25·6 (23·0 to 28·2)* 1·3 (−0·0 to 2·8) 1359·3 (920·5–1791·4) 25·3 (22·4 to 28·4)* 1·4 (−0·3 to 3·2) End-stage chronic kidney disease due to diabetes aggregate 750·5 (643·3 to 864·2) 19·8 (16·4 to 23·4)* −3·0 (−5·2 to −0·7)* 189·5 (130·5–252·0) 26·6 (22·3 to 30·9)* 0·7 (−2·1 to 3·7) Chronic kidney disease due to hypertension 78 962·3 (67 846·7 to 91 021·2) 26·0 (23·6 to 28·6)* 0·2 (−1·4 to 1·9) 1508·0 (1108·7–1938·1) 28·5 (25·8 to 31·5)* 1·2 (−0·6 to 3·3) Stage 3 chronic kidney disease due to hypertension aggregate 72 772·4 (61 662·5 to 84 498·2) 25·9 (23·3 to 28·6)* 0·2 (−1·6 to 2·0) 80·8 (54·2–120·1) 22·1 (17·5 to 26·6)* −4·4 (−8·0 to −0·9)* Stage 4 chronic kidney disease due to hypertension aggregate 4102·2 (3503·5 to 4772·6) 25·9 (22·4 to 29·5)* 0·7 (−1·6 to 2·8) 489·8 (341·4–696·7) 25·2 (22·1 to 28·7)* 0·5 (−1·5 to 2·5) Stage 5 chronic kidney disease untreated due to hypertension 1652·2 (1404·5 to 1913·7) 30·7 (27·5 to 34·2)* 1·8 (−0·5 to 4·1) 816·8 (565·2–1060·3) 30·5 (27·0 to 34·5)* 2·0 (−0·5 to 4·7) End-stage chronic kidney disease due to hypertension aggregate 435·5 (363·3 to 509·1) 27·5 (22·0 to 33·6)* 0·6 (−3·1 to 4·9) 120·6 (83·1–162·3) 33·2 (27·4 to 39·8)* 3·8 (−0·3 to 8·9) Chronic kidney disease due to glomerulonephritis 67 348·7 (58 198·9 to 77 439·5) 28·9 (25·8 to 32·3)* 1·1 (−1·1 to 3·6) 1951·4 (1432·2–2479·2) 22·2 (20·1 to 24·4)* −0·7 (−2·1 to 0·7) Stage 3 chronic kidney disease due to glomerulonephritis aggregate 59 790·8 (50 844·6 to 69 692·7) 29·9 (26·4 to 33·6)* 1·3 (−1·1 to 4·1) 111·3 (73·5–165·2) 17·1 (13·1 to 20·7)* −5·6 (−8·8 to −2·7)* Stage 4 chronic kidney disease due to glomerulonephritis aggregate 4872·4 (4297·2 to 5506·6) 21·3 (18·8 to 23·9)* −0·5 (−2·2 to 1·6) 602·5 (418·4–845·6) 20·2 (17·7 to 22·9)* −0·5 (−2·3 to 1·5) Stage 5 chronic kidney disease untreated due to glomerulonephritis 2228·1 (1895·7 to 2596·9) 23·6 (21·3 to 25·9)* −0·6 (−2·0 to 0·7) 1122·6 (773·7–1461·3) 23·5 (20·5 to 26·3)* −0·4 (−2·4 to 1·5) End-stage chronic kidney disease due to glomerulonephritis aggregate 457·4 (377·1 to 543·0) 20·5 (16·7 to 24·5)* −2·6 (−5·1 to −0·0)* 115·0 (80·2–152·9) 26·0 (21·1 to 31·2)* 0·4 (−3·2 to 4·1) Chronic kidney disease due to other causes 94 553·5 (81 141·8 to 109 371·3) 26·2 (24·2 to 28·3)* 0·1 (−1·1 to 1·5) 2257·2 (1663·4–2892·2) 23·0 (21·1 to 25·1)* −0·5 (−1·6 to 0·6) Stage 3 chronic kidney disease due to other causes aggregate 85 459·8 (72 471·6 to 99 605·4) 26·6 (24·6 to 28·8)* 0·1 (−1·2 to 1·6)* 132·2 (88·0–194·5) 17·6 (14·0 to 20·8)* −6·2 (−8·8 to −3·8)* Stage 4 chronic kidney disease due to other causes aggregate 6058·4 (5257·9 to 6938·4) 21·3 (18·9 to 23·5)* −0·2 (−1·1 to 0·8) 739·7 (513·5–1 029·6) 19·4 (17·0 to 21·6)* −1·0 (−2·2 to 0·2) Stage 5 chronic kidney disease untreated due to other causes 2464·6 (2115·1 to 2835·9) 25·7 (23·8 to 27·5)* 0·1 (−0·9 to 1·1) 1233·0 (855·9–1604·1) 25·5 (23·0 to 28·0)* 0·3 (−1·1 to 1·8) End-stage chronic kidney disease due to other causes aggregate 570·6 (485·6 to 668·1) 21·6 (18·0 to 25·0)* −2·2 (−4·2 to −0·2)* 152·4 (107·3–200·8) 26·3 (21·8 to 30·7)* 0·1 (−3·0 to 3·2) Urinary diseases and male infertility 436 081·7 (425 577·7 to 446 450·5) 24·2 (22·8 to 25·4)* 0·9 (−0·1 to 1·9) 4220·9 (2699·9–6045·2) 28·9 (26·8 to 31·0)* −0·7 (−2·1 to 0·7) Interstitial nephritis and urinary tract infections 2901·2 (2831·9 to 2980·4) 19·3 (19·0 to 19·7)* 3·1 (2·9 to 3·3) 96·6 (59·9–144·0) 19·2 (17·5 to 20·9)* 3·3 (1·8 to 4·7)* Urolithiasis 319 600·2 (291 519·2 to 349 966·1) 22·8 (20·8 to 24·9)* 0·9 (−0·7 to 2·5) 89·7 (60·9–122·5) 23·4 (20·0 to 27·0)* 2·8 (0·1 to 5·5)* Benign prostatic hyperplasia 104 625·3 (90 729·8 to 118 244·0) 29·7 (27·5 to 32·0)* −1·3 (−2·8 to 0·2) 3792·7 (2423·8–5437·3) 29·8 (27·6 to 32·2)* −1·3 (−2·8 to 0·3) Male infertility 29 033·2 (23 972·5 to 34 766·8) 22·6 (19·3 to 25·6)* 9·6 (6·8 to 12·1)* 173·9 (70·1–365·3)* 22·7 (19·3 to 25·9)* 9·8 (6·9 to 12·5)* Other urinary diseases .. .. .. 67·9 (45·5–96·5) 17·2 (9·1 to 27·2)* −0·6 (−7·3 to 7·7)* Gynaecological diseases 794 303·2 (786 497·9 to 801 169·7) 13·8 (13·2 to 14·5)* −1·8 (−2·4 to −1·2)* 10 001·2 (6807·0–14 312·3) 10·7 (9·4 to 11·9)* −3·3 (−4·3 to −2·5)* Uterine fibroids 151 115·0 (144 146·9 to 158 477·5) 19·2 (18·8 to 19·5)* −0·4 (−0·6 to −0·2)* 2383·5 (1450·2–3834·4) 11·1 (8·6 to 13·2)* −5·8 (−7·7 to −4·2)* Uterine fibroids cases aggregate 108 335·0 (101 618·4 to 115 233·6) 23·0 (22·3 to 23·7)* 1·7 (1·2 to 2·1)* 645·9 (314·9–1193·3) 26·1 (25·0 to 27·3)* 3·4 (2·7 to 4·3)* Mild abdominal pain with anaemia due to uterine fibroids aggregate 42 780·0 (41 634·5 to 43 881·4) 10·5 (9·5 to 11·5)* −5·5 (−6·3 to −4·6)* 1737·5 (1125·7–2625·4) 6·4 (4·5 to 8·1)* −8·9 (−10·5 to −7·4)* Polycystic ovarian syndrome 60 106·4 (46 139·3 to 75 963·4) 10·7 (10·1 to 11·4)* −0·5 (−0·9 to −0·0)* 532·6 (238·9–1 044·6) 10·8 (9·9 to 11·5)* −0·5 (−1·1 to 0·0) Polycystic ovarian syndrome cases aggregate 47 116·8 (35 880·1 to 60 919·9) 10·4 (9·8 to 11·1)* −0·8 (−1·2 to −0·3)* 408·0 (181·1–797·7) 10·5 (9·7 to 11·3)* −0·7 (−1·2 to −0·1)* Hirsutism and infertility due to polycystic ovarian syndrome aggregate 12 989·6 (8 635·6 to 18 975·6) 11·9 (10·9 to 12·7)* 0·4 (−0·4 to 1·1) 124·6 (47·2–278·0) 11·5 (9·6 to 12·9)* 0·1 (−1·5 to 1·3) Female infertility 61 300·1 (45 889·9 to 79 647·1) 24·6 (19·2 to 30·0)* 11·2 (6·5 to 15·8)* 344·5 (134·3–746·7) 25·0 (19·7 to 30·0)* 11·7 (7·2 to 16·2)* Endometriosis 10 758·2 (9 165·5 to 12 485·9) 11·6 (10·9 to 12·2)* −2·6 (−3·0 to −2·2)* 996·4 (647·1–1 384·7) 11·7 (10·4 to 12·9)* −2·4 (−3·5 to −1·5)* Endometriosis cases aggregate 10 167·5 (8 652·4 to 11 828·8) 11·5 (10·9 to 12·2)* −2·7 (−3·1 to −2·3)* 937·3 (610·7–1 312·6) 11·6 (10·3 to 12·9)* −2·5 (−3·6 to −1·6)* Abdominal pain and infertility due to endometriosis aggregate 590·7 (415·2 to 787·2) 12·3 (11·2 to 13·3)* −1·0 (−1·8 to −0·3)* 59·1 (34·2–90·8) 12·3 (9·5 to 15·2)* −0·9 (−3·4 to 1·5) Genital prolapse 161 679·1 (142 334·7 to 182 566·5) 17·7 (15·2 to 20·0)* −6·6 (−8·5 to −4·8)* 503·0 (242·5–904·3) 17·8 (15·4 to 20·3)* −6·5 (−8·4 to −4·6)* Premenstrual syndrome 430 696·9 (410 840·7 to 450 494·4) 10·1 (7·9 to 11·8)* −2·1 (−3·9 to −0·7)* 3621·6 (2249·5–5428·5) 10·2 (8·0 to 12·0)* −2·0 (−3·8 to −0·4)* Other gynaecological diseases 45 018·8 (44 057·3 to 46 031·2) 8·0 (7·3 to 8·6)* −4·2 (−4·8 to −3·7)* 1619·8 (1129·8–2210·0) 6·2 (4·9 to 7·6)* −5·7 (−6·8 to −4·6)* Other gynaecological diseases cases aggregate 23 908·1 (22 975·7 to 24 918·0) 13·8 (13·5 to 14·0)* −0·4 (−0·5 to −0·2)* 936·8 (635·4–1 305·9) 13·8 (12·6 to 15·1)* −0·2 (−1·2 to 0·8) Anaemia due to other gynaecological diseases aggregate 21 110·8 (20 900·6 to 21 328·2) 2·1 (0·9 to 3·4)* −8·2 (−9·3 to −7·1)* 682·9 (461·0–978·0) −2·7 (−4·6 to −0·7)* −12·3 (−14·0 to −10·6)* Haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias 1 571 610·0 (1 545 204·5 to 1 605 099·8) 11·1 (9·5 to 12·6)* −1·1 (−2·5 to 0·3) 8221·5 (5528·6–11 766·6) 4·3 (2·9 to 5·5)* −4·9 (−6·0 to −3·9)* Thalassaemias 439·0 (405·7 to 496·3) 1·4 (−0·1 to 3·4) −6·5 (−7·8 to −4·6)* 31·3 (21·2–44·4) 1·0 (−3·8 to 6·1) −7·0 (−11·4 to −2·5)* β-thalassaemia major cases aggregate 229·2 (222·7 to 238·2) 4·4 (3·6 to 5·2)* −4·2 (−4·9 to −3·4)* 16·1 (11·0–22·9) 4·1 (−2·5 to 11·5) −4·7 (−10·6 to 1·9) Haemoglobin E or β-thalassaemia cases aggregate 67·4 (60·1 to 75·2) 5·4 (2·9 to 8·1)* −2·5 (−4·8 to 0·1) 5·1 (3·4–7·3) 1·8 (−10·0 to 14·2) −5·9 (−16·7 to 4·9) Haemoglobin H disease cases aggregate 139·0 (107·5 to 196·4) −5·3 (−10·0 to 0·8) −11·8 (−16·2 to −6·3)* 9·7 (6·4–14·1) −4·9 (−12·3 to 4·9) −11·4 (−18·2 to −2·4)* Heart failure due to thalassaemias aggregate 3·4 (3·2 to 3·6) 26·3 (24·3 to 28·4)* 0·1 (−1·1 to 1·4)* 0·4 (0·3–0·6) 26·4 (16·0 to 38·3)* 0·6 (−9·3 to 11·8) Thalassaemias trait 279 451·4 (272 818·9 to 287 357·4) 10·5 (10·1 to 11·0)* −2·1 (−2·5 to −1·7)* 3922·2 (2607·9–5653·6) 6·1 (4·8 to 7·4)* −3·6 (−4·6 to −2·6)* β-thalassaemia trait cases aggregate 226 029·6 (220 111·5 to 233 332·0) 10·1 (9·6 to 10·5)* −2·5 (−3·0 to −2·1)* 3661·7 (2437·6–5270·8) 5·9 (4·7 to 7·2)* −3·8 (−4·9 to −2·8)* Haemoglobin E trait cases aggregate 53 421·8 (51 122·3 to 55 882·5) 12·6 (11·5 to 13·7)* −0·1 (−1·0 to 0·8) 260·5 (174·7–382·8) 8·4 (5·2 to 11·3)* −0·5 (−3·2 to 2·1) Sickle-cell disorders 4449·9 (4293·7 to 4600·7) 8·2 (5·2 to 11·9)* 2·8 (−0·2 to 6·2) 371·4 (259·0–518·0) 7·7 (3·3 to 12·3)* 2·3 (−1·8 to 6·6) Homozygous sickle-cell and severe sickle-cell/β-thalassaemia cases aggregate 4035·1 (3876·0 to 4173·7) 6·5 (3·3 to 10·3)* 1·2 (−1·8 to 4·8) 339·4 (237·7–472·1) 6·5 (2·0 to 11·4)* 1·3 (−2·9 to 5·9) Haemoglobin SC disease cases aggregate 397·6 (368·2 to 427·4) 29·6 (18·3 to 45·6)* 21·5 (11·0 to 36·5)* 30·1 (21·1–42·1) 22·9 (9·6 to 37·4)* 15·2 (2·8 to 28·9)* Mild sickle-cell/β-thalassaemia cases aggregate 17·2 (15·9 to 18·6) 16·1 (10·1 to 21·8)* 6·4 (0·8 to 11·5)* 1·9 (1·3–2·6) 13·2 (4·7 to 21·9)* 2·7 (−4·9 to 10·5) Sickle-cell trait 404 565·9 (381 223·4 to 448 154·6) 19·4 (18·3 to 20·3)* 7·5 (6·5 to 8·3)* 1720·3 (1156·5–2459·0) 10·8 (7·3 to 13·4)* 1·4 (−1·8 to 3·6) G6PD deficiency 247 073·7 (209 306·7 to 286 712·7) 6·9 (1·4 to 11·9)* −4·4 (−9·3 to 0·1) 28·4 (19·3–39·6) 1·8 (−2·1 to 6·0) −7·7 (−11·2 to −4·0)* G6PD cases aggregate 247 068·5 (209 301·6 to 286 707·7) 6·9 (1·4 to 11·9)* −4·4 (−9·3 to 0·1) 27·7 (18·9–38·7) 1·2 (−2·8 to 5·5) −8·1 (−11·6 to −4·3)* Heart failure due to G6PD deficiency aggregate 5·2 (4·7 to 5·7) 38·1 (36·6 to 39·8)* 7·9 (6·8 to 9·1)* 0·6 (0·4–0·9) 38·1 (34·6 to 41·5)* 7·8 (5·0 to 10·6)* G6PD trait 728 549·2 (676 734·8 to 781 533·8) 9·8 (7·9 to 11·4)* −2·7 (−4·3 to −1·2)* 28·0 (19·3–38·9) 4·3 (0·1 to 8·8)* −5·3 (−9·0 to −1·2)* Other haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias 74 385·1 (73 897·6 to 74 861·6) 1·8 (0·9 to 2·7)* −9·0 (−9·7 to −8·2)* 2119·8 (1423·9–3029·9) −3·8 (−5·5 to −2·2)* −12·3 (−13·8 to −11·0)* Other haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias cases aggregate 74 273·3 (73 786·0 to 74 751·1) 1·8 (0·9 to 2·7)* −9·0 (−9·8 to −8·2)* 2067·4 (1384·3–2963·9) −4·1 (−5·8 to −2·4)* −12·6 (−14·1 to −11·2)* Heart failure due to other haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias aggregate 111·8 (103·8 to 119·6) 34·9 (33·9 to 36·0)* 2·0 (1·3 to 2·7)* 13·1 (8·9–18·2) 34·9 (31·2 to 38·7)* 2·1 (−0·8 to 5·0) Endocrine, metabolic, blood, and immune disorders 66 128·9 (65 597·1 to 66 663·8) 4·0 (2·2 to 5·9)* −7·2 (−8·7 to −5·5)* 2110·5 (1431·5–2993·7) 1·3 (−1·1 to 3·8) −8·3 (−10·4 to −6·1)* Endocrine metabolic blood and immune disorders cases aggregate 7577·2 (7382·6 to 7766·6) 19·8 (19·0 to 20·6)* −0·6 (−1·2 to 0·0) 292·4 (200·2–401·8) 19·5 (18·1 to 21·0)* −0·5 (−1·6 to 0·6) 58 430·4 (57 936·0–58 946·7) 2·2 (0·3–4·3)* −8·0 (−9·7––6·2)* 1804·4 (1216·0–2582·3) −1·3 (−3·9–1·5) −9·5 (−11·9––7·0)* Anaemia due to endocrine metabolic blood and immune disorders aggregate 58 430·4 (57 936·0 to 58 946·7) 2·2 (0·3 to 4·3)* −8·0 (−9·7 to −6·2)* 1804·4 (1216·0–2582·3) −1·3 (−3·9 to 1·5) −9·5 (−11·9 to −7·0)* Heart failure due to endocrine metabolic blood and immune disorders aggregate 121·4 (113·3 to 130·0) 30·7 (29·6 to 31·9)* −1·9 (−2·6 to −1·2)* 13·6 (9·4–19·1) 30·7 (27·4 to 34·0)* −1·7 (−4·3 to 0·8) Musculoskeletal disorders 1 304 100·4 (1 288 602·8 to 1 316 641·4) 20·7 (20·2 to 21·2)* −0·7 (−1·1 to −0·3)* 146 783·8 (106 764·7–194 473·5) 20·5 (19·6 to 21·5)* −0·7 (−1·3 to −0·0)* Rheumatoid arthritis 24 491·2 (22 552·0 to 26 750·7) 23·8 (21·1 to 26·7)* 0·6 (−1·5 to 2·9) 5777·8 (4016·1–7769·6) 23·6 (20·9 to 26·7)* 0·7 (−1·4 to 3·1)* Osteoarthritis 237 368·6 (230 335·9 to 244 648·1) 32·9 (31·9 to 33·8)* 2·2 (1·6 to 2·9)* 12 886·2 (8 999·7–17 540·0) 34·8 (33·6 to 36·0)* 3·9 (3·0 to 4·8)* Osteoarthritis of the hip cases aggregate 35 629·2 (32 482·6 to 38 970·1) 33·5 (32·4 to 34·6)* 1·8 (1·0 to 2·6)* 1776·2 (1224·9–2477·0) 35·8 (34·4 to 37·3)* 3·7 (2·6 to 5·0)* Osteoarthritis of the knee cases aggregate 201 739·4 (195 205·3 to 208 276·6) 32·7 (31·7 to 33·9)* 2·3 (1·5 to 3·1)* 11 110·0 (7742·1–15 123·2) 34·6 (33·3 to 35·9)* 3·9 (3·0 to 4·9)* Low back and neck pain 820 689·8 (803 467·4 to 837 808·9) 18·7 (17·9 to 19·4)* −2·0 (−2·6 to −1·4)* 94 941·5 (67 825·3–128 035·0) 18·6 (17·6 to 19·6)* −2·1 (−2·7 to −1·4)* Low back pain 539 907·4 (521 448·6 to 559 556·0) 17·3 (16·5 to 18·2)* −2·8 (−3·4 to −2·2)* 60 074·8 (42 721·9–82 343·7) 17·2 (16·4 to 18·1)* −2·6 (−3·2 to −2·0)* Neck pain 358 006·6 (313 408·4 to 409 411·0) 21·1 (19·0 to 23·3)* −1·1 (−2·4 to 0·0) 34 866·7 (23 362·1–47 636·9) 21·0 (18·9 to 23·2)* −1·1 (−2·3 to 0·1) Gout 42 214·2 (37 688·2 to 47 495·5) 26·4 (25·2 to 27·7)* 0·5 (0·1 to 1·0)* 1342·8 (910·0–1843·8) 26·3 (24·6 to 27·9)* 0·6 (−0·3 to 1·5) Asymptomatic gout 37 712·9 (33 598·4 to 42 467·0) 26·4 (25·2 to 27·7)* 0·5 (0·1 to 1·0)* 0·0 (0·0–0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) 0·0 (0·0 to 0·0) Other musculoskeletal disorders 342 067·7 (305 430·7 to 385 146·7) 20·7 (17·5 to 24·0)* 1·2 (−1·2 to 3·7) 31 835·4 (21 489·1–44 268·4) 20·5 (17·2 to 23·7)* 1·3 (−1·1 to 3·8) Other non-communicable diseases 5 316 342·1 (5 283 701·8 to 5 355 928·3) 14·6 (14·3 to 14·8)* 0·4 (0·2 to 0·6)* 139 001·8 (95 459·0–197 704·3) 20·4 (19·5 to 21·5)* 1·2 (0·6 to 2·0)* Congenital anomalies 95 706·4 (88 133·4 to 102 483·4) 22·5 (18·5 to 26·3)* 9·3 (5·8 to 12·8)* 8621·0 (5389·1–12 950·2) 28·5 (20·0 to 37·6)* 14·7 (7·1 to 22·7)* Neural tube defects 1449·6 (988·4 to 2091·8) 17·7 (14·5 to 20·3)* 7·2 (4·3 to 9·7)* 499·1 (285·3–823·7) 18·4 (14·1 to 22·2)* 8·1 (4·1 to 11·6)* Congenital heart anomalies 48 869·1 (34 325·7 to 72 829·2) 29·8 (25·3 to 34·1)* 15·4 (11·4 to 19·2)* 1688·2 (659·4–3116·9) 29·7 (25·6 to 33·7)* 15·6 (11·7 to 19·1)* Less severe heart anomalies cases aggregate 44 599·5 (29 800·6 to 68 498·5) 29·4 (24·5 to 34·0)* 15·2 (10·7 to 19·1)* 1431·0 (532·7–2747·7) 29·3 (24·2 to 34·0)* 15·2 (10·7 to 19·2)* Severe congenital heart anomalies 4008·6 (2671·1 to 6011·2) 33·7 (27·4 to 39·0)* 18·5 (12·9 to 23·3)* 235·0 (93·2–467·8) 33·5 (27·4 to 38·7)* 18·5 (13·2 to 23·2)* Critical congenital heart anomalies 155·8 (90·3 to 252·4) 42·0 (27·5 to 52·9)* 28·6 (15·5 to 38·5)* 9·2 (3·2–18·7) 42·0 (26·4 to 54·2)* 28·9 (14·9 to 40·1)* Heart failure due to congenital heart anomalies aggregate 105·2 (99·2 to 111·4) 11·6 (10·9 to 12·4)* −1·0 (−1·5 to −0·5)* 12·9 (8·8–18·2) 11·6 (8·3 to 15·1)* −1·0 (−3·9 to 2·0) Cleft lip and cleft palate 6882·6 (4029·2 to 11 483·5) 19·5 (7·7 to 27·5)* 6·6 (−3·9 to 13·9) 79·6 (39·5–143·1) 12·2 (2·6 to 19·9)* 0·9 (−7·9 to 7·7) Down syndrome 5361·8 (3424·6 to 8192·1) 17·9 (13·7 to 21·8)* 6·4 (2·3 to 10·0)* 507·0 (286·2–837·2) 20·3 (15·8 to 24·2)* 6·5 (2·2 to 10·2)* Turner syndrome 372·4 (174·6 to 677·1) 11·9 (9·8 to 13·9)* 0·1 (−1·7 to 1·9) 6·6 (2·4–14·4) 11·4 (8·7 to 14·0)* −0·1 (−2·4 to 2·2) Klinefelter syndrome 220·5 (115·5 to 395·5) 12·8 (10·9 to 14·2)* 0·5 (−1·2 to 1·9) 1·3 (0·5–3·1) 13·5 (10·6 to 15·6)* 0·2 (−2·2 to 2·0) Other chromosomal abnormalities 4728·6 (2628·9 to 8303·2) 16·2 (11·8 to 19·8)* 4·3 (0·1 to 7·7)* 454·1 (233·5–852·1) 18·5 (13·6 to 22·3)* 4·2 (−0·5 to 7·9) Other congenital anomalies 32 363·0 (17 788·1 to 59 394·1) 14·5 (12·3 to 16·8)* 2·0 (−0·1 to 4·1) 5385·0 (3209·4–8562·1) 31·3 (18·8 to 45·9)* 17·1 (6·1 to 30·3)* Skin and subcutaneous diseases 2 239 493·4 (2 222 716·3 to 2 258 252·8) 12·5 (12·1 to 12·8)* 0·7 (0·4 to 1·1)* 44 896·0 (28 943·3–67 159·6) 11·7 (11·0 to 12·3)* 0·4 (0·1 to 0·7)* Dermatitis 245 290·6 (227 283·4 to 262 752·2) 14·0 (13·2 to 14·8)* 0·3 (0·1 to 0·7)* 8788·0 (5963·4–12 273·5) 13·6 (12·9 to 14·4)* 1·6 (1·0 to 2·2)* Eczema cases aggregate 85 585·6 (75 115·2 to 97 031·7) 13·0 (12·4 to 13·6)* 3·3 (2·8 to 3·8)* 5239·2 (3515·1 to 7348·6) 13·0 (12·2 13·9)* 3·4 (2·7 to 4·2)* Contact dermatitis cases aggregate 98 015·1 (85 097·0 to 110 396·7) 15·2 (13·3 to 16·9)* −1·0 (−1·2 to −0·9)* 2632·0 (1625·8–3852·4) 15·0 (13·1 to 16·8)* −0·9 (−1·4 to −0·5)* Seborrhoeic dermatitis cases aggregate 61 690·0 (54 642·8 to 68 788·8) 13·3 (12·0 to 14·7)* −1·3 (−1·7 to −1·0)* 916·8 (521·6–1454·1) 13·2 (11·8 to 14·7)* −1·3 (−1·8 to −0·8)* Psoriasis 79 699·7 (76 690·9 to 82 804·5) 17·6 (17·0 to 18·3)* 0·4 (−0·1 to 0·9) 6438·3 (4495·6–8734·5) 17·5 (16·6 to 18·4)* 0·6 (−0·0 to 1·2) Cellulitis 959·9 (887·6 to 1033·6) 24·0 (22·1 to 25·7)* 5·8 (4·3 to 7·2)* 69·0 (45·0–97·8) 23·6 (20·7 to 26·1)* 5·8 (3·5 to 8·1)* Pyoderma 5812·7 (5581·7 to 6019·0) 15·5 (14·7 to 16·3)* 1·4 (0·7 to 2·1)* 32·7 (13·2–68·4) 15·4 (14·0 to 16·8)* 1·5 (0·3 to 2·7)* Scabies 204 151·7 (177 533·7 to 237 466·2) 6·6 (4·0 to 9·5)* −2·6 (−4·5 to −0·6)* 5268·9 (2966·9–8605·6) 6·6 (3·8 to 9·5)* −2·5 (−4·5 to −0·5)* Fungal skin diseases 492 372·6 (448 950·9 to 538 232·5) 13·3 (12·5 to 14·1)* 1·6 (1·3 to 1·9)* 2783·3 (1105·6–5905·3) 13·3 (12·4 to 14·1)* 1·7 (1·4 to 2·0)* Viral skin diseases 174 843·1 (165 156·3 to 185 072·0) 8·5 (8·0 to 9·0)* −1·1 (−1·4 to −0·8)* 5396·9 (3417·1–7959·9) 8·4 (7·9 to 9·0)* −1·0 (−1·4 to −0·6)* Molluscum contagiosum cases aggregate 40 464·2 (35 685·6 to 46 233·4) 5·2 (4·7 to 5·8)* −0·9 (−1·3 to −0·5)* 1263·0 (783·0–1932·3) 5·3 (4·6 to 6·1)* −0·8 (−1·5 to −0·2)* Viral warts cases aggregate 134 378·9 (125 683·9 to 143 028·0) 9·5 (8·9 to 10·1)* −1·1 (−1·4 to −0·7)* 4133·9 (2628·4–6153·4) 9·4 (8·8 to 10·1)* −1·0 (−1·5 to −0·6)* Acne vulgaris 632 741·0 (595 241·9 to 671 248·9) 4·6 (3·5 to 5·6)* 0·8 (−0·1 to 1·7) 6854·0 (3275·1–12 713·9) 4·6 (3·5 to 5·6)* 0·8 (−0·1 to 1·8) Alopecia areata 20 594·9 (19 607·8 to 21 617·0) 14·0 (13·5 to 14·4)* −1·1 (−1·3 to −1·0)* 695·6 (428·5–1035·6) 13·9 (13·1 to 14·7)* −1·0 (−1·7 to −0·4)* Pruritus 69 582·5 (62 063·2 to 78 152·6) 17·6 (15·7 to 19·5)* 0·4 (−0·7 to 1·6) 741·6 (360·0–1348·6) 17·5 (15·6 to 19·4)* 0·5 (−0·7 to 1·7) Urticaria 67 749·8 (58 743·2 to 77 086·4) 10·7 (9·6 to 12·0)* −0·1 (−0·3 to 0·0) 4115·7 (2567·2–5833·6) 10·7 (9·6 to 12·0)* −0·0 (−0·5 to 0·4) Decubitus ulcer 1087·5 (991·2 to 1189·7) 35·4 (33·4 to 37·4)* 4·7 (3·3 to 6·0)* 161·3 (112·0–218·7) 34·5 (31·9 to 37·3)* 4·7 (2·6 to 6·9)* Other skin and subcutaneous diseases 605 036·3 (589 500·0 to 619 675·6) 22·8 (22·1 to 23·4)* 2·4 (1·9 to 2·9)* 3550·5 (1706·2–6514·4) 22·6 (22·0 to 23·3)* 2·5 (2·0 to 2·9)* Sense organ diseases 1 788 125·6 (1 771 367·0 to 1 808 438·8) 23·7 (23·3 to 24·1)* 0·6 (0·3 to 0·9)* 68 515·2 (47 798·2–93 894·8) 25·2 (24·2 to 26·4)* 0·6 (−0·0 to 1·3) Glaucoma 5954·5 (5077·5 to 6905·8) 39·1 (36·9 to 41·4)* 4·2 (2·8 to 5·5)* 541·3 (370·0–747·9) 39·4 (37·0 to 41·9)* 4·3 (2·6 to 5·8)* Cataract 59 727·0 (53 633·2 to 66 879·2) 26·9 (25·2 to 28·5)* −3·2 (−4·5 to −2·0)* 3879·7 (2766·9–5229·2) 25·5 (24·1 to 26·9)* −4·2 (−5·2 to −3·2)* Macular degeneration 6188·4 (5250·3 to 7273·2) 48·5 (46·1 to 50·8)* 8·2 (6·9 to 9·8)* 462·4 (327·4–633·0) 47·7 (45·2 to 49·9)* 6·9 (5·3 to 8·6)* Refraction and accommodation disorders 819 307·4 (789 917·4 to 848 059·2) 21·9 (20·5 to 23·2)* −0·4 (−1·3 to 0·6) 14 593·8 (9392·9–22 901·1) 21·1 (20·2 to 22·1)* −0·3 (−0·9 to 0·4) Age-related and other hearing loss 1 210 055·2 (1 140 224·2 to 1 274 664·8) 28·3 (27·4 to 29·2)* 1·4 (1·0 to 1·8)* 40 596·8 (27 898·4–56 075·0) 26·4 (24·6 to 28·3)* 1·1 (0·0 to 2·1)* Other vision loss 25 797·4 (22 675·6 to 28 504·6) 27·1 (24·6 to 29·5)* 5·5 (4·2 to 6·7)* 1 756·4 (1248·9–2392·7) 29·9 (27·8 to 32·0)* 5·6 (4·3 to 6·7)* Other sense organ diseases 267 689·7 (258 379·8 to 277 711·4) 24·0 (23·1 to 24·9)* 0·8 (0·1 to 1·4)* 6684·7 (4185·0–9714·7) 23·8 (22·9 to 24·8)* 0·9 (0·2 to 1·5)* Acute other sense organ diseases 1343·8 (1303·5 to 1385·9) 14·9 (14·2 to 15·7)* 0·9 (0·4 to 1·4)* 35·4 (21·6–51·6) 14·8 (12·7 to 16·9)* 0·9 (−0·9 to 2·7) Chronic other sense organ diseases 266 345·9 (257 047·4 to 276 383·0) 24·0 (23·1 to 24·9)* 0·8 (0·1 to 1·4)* 6649·3 (4162·3–9662·4) 23·9 (23·0 to 24·9)* 0·9 (0·2 to 1·5)* Oral disorders 3 521 901·1 (3 468 088·2 to 3 575 854·4) 14·5 (13·8 to 15·0)* 0·4 (−0·1 to 0·9) 16 969·6 (10 296·5–26 044·5) 22·4 (21·6 to 23·2)* −0·2 (−0·5 to 0·1) Deciduous caries 572 694·1 (475 089·8 to 686 991·2) 4·5 (2·3 to 6·1)* −2·3 (−4·2 to −0·7)* 147·2 (63·0–292·1) 4·1 (1·6 to 5·9)* −2·7 (−4·9 to −0·8)* Permanent caries 2 521 197·8 (2 361 418·3 to 2 679 668·7) 14·5 (13·7 to 15·4)* 0·8 (0·3 to 1·4)* 1743·4 (776·7–3320·9) 13·5 (12·6 to 14·4)* −0·4 (−1·2 to 0·4) Periodontal diseases 537 506·0 (465 113·9 to 625 888·8) 25·4 (24·1 to 26·5)* 1·1 (0·5 to 1·7)* 3520·7 (1359·3–7253·7) 25·4 (24·1 to 26·5)* 1·2 (0·6 to 1·8)* Edentulism and severe tooth loss 275 619·1 (264 200·8 to 288 252·3) 27·3 (26·9 to 27·7)* −0·9 (−1·1 to −0·7)* 7640·3 (5096·6–10 562·3) 27·3 (26·9 to 27·7)* −0·8 (−1·1 to −0·6)* Other oral disorders 133 719·0 (127 499·7 to 139 776·2) 15·9 (15·4 to 16·4)* −0·1 (−0·2 to 0·1) 3918·1 (2432·7–5879·4) 15·8 (15·3 to 16·4)* 0·0 (−0·2 to 0·3) Injuries 1 019 157·4 (977 405·7 to 1 064 704·2) 16·4 (15·5 to 17·4)* −3·4 (−4·1 to −2·6)* 41 022·0 (29 290·4–55 288·4) 8·0 (4·6 to 11·1)* −9·9 (−12·5 to −7·5)* Transport injuries 115 981·0 (110 575·9 to 123 047·1) 23·1 (22·5 to 23·7)* −0·0 (−0·4 to 0·4) 6444·8 (4500·6–8733·0) 12·2 (8·7 to 15·8)* −8·0 (−10·7 to −5·3)* Road injuries 107 722·4 (102 214·5 to 114 850·0) 23·4 (22·8 to 24·1)* 0·3 (−0·1 to 0·7) 5956·1 (4130·8–8076·3) 13·3 (9·9 to 16·7)* −7·1 (−9·7 to −4·6)* Pedestrian road injuries 14 157·8 (12 664·5 to 16 095·9) 22·9 (21·7 to 24·1)* −0·7 (−1·4 to 0·0) 770·8 (532·9–1060·8) 9·6 (5·5 to 13·6)* −10·6 (−13·7 to −7·6)* Cyclist road injuries 18 700·6 (16 545·4 to 20 951·1) 21·4 (19·9 to 22·7)* −0·4 (−1·2 to 0·4) 968·2 (655·2–1348·5) 9·9 (5·5 to 14·2)* −9·0 (−12·5 to −5·9)* Motorcyclist road injuries 26 417·2 (23 496·7 to 29 722·0) 31·7 (30·3 to 33·0)* 7·3 (6·5 to 8·1)* 1397·9 (962·0–1919·8) 17·6 (13·0 to 22·1)* −3·3 (−7·0 to 0·2) Motor vehicle road injuries 44 311·4 (40 212·6 to 49 496·3) 18·7 (17·7 to 19·8)* −4·1 (−4·7 to −3·4)* 2585·4 (1811·2–3556·8) 12·2 (9·6 to 14·8)* −8·4 (−10·4 to −6·6)* Other road injuries 4135·3 (3603·7 to 4692·7) 40·2 (38·6 to 42·1)* 15·2 (14·4 to 16·1)* 233·7 (158·3–320·9) 32·1 (28·3 to 35·5)* 9·5 (6·8 to 11·9)* Other transport injuries 8258·5 (7469·0 to 9141·6) 18·8 (17·9 to 19·7)* −3·2 (−3·6 to −2·7)* 488·7 (348·6–660·5) 0·3 (−4·0 to 5·2) −17·1 (−20·5 to −13·3)* Unintentional injuries 790 101·8 (759 587·4 to 824 995·0) 14·3 (13·8 to 14·8)* −5·2 (−5·5 to −4·9)* 30 679·5 (21 602·9–41 953·7) 6·2 (3·1 to 9·0)* −11·4 (−13·6 to −9·2)* Falls 225 736·9 (207 914·3 to 245 787·2) 25·1 (24·4 to 25·8)* 1·7 (1·3 to 2·1)* 11 770·2 (8257·6–16 166·4) 11·3 (6·7 to 15·7)* −8·6 (−12·1 to −5·2)* Drowning 4455·5 (4041·2 to 4919·4) 7·0 (5·8 to 8·1)* −13·1 (−13·5 to −12·7)* 247·3 (173·4–335·8) −6·7 (−10·3 to −2·4)* −23·4 (−26·2 to −20·2)* Fire, heat, and hot substances 69 666·6 (60 988·1 to 78 550·1) 10·8 (10·1 to 11·7)* −8·3 (−8·8 to −7·9)* 2269·4 (1571·4–3131·8) 1·9 (−1·8 to 5·5) −13·5 (−16·1 to −11·2)* Poisonings 5722·4 (4829·3 to 6854·1) 13·8 (12·7 to 14·9)* −2·0 (−3·2 to −0·6)* 549·4 (367·8–791·1) 8·8 (6·7 to 10·8)* −4·5 (−6·6 to −2·6)* Exposure to mechanical forces 183 582·4 (169 658·6 to 197 859·6) 13·9 (13·0 to 14·7)* −3·5 (−4·0 to −2·9)* 3580·8 (2485·7–4922·9) 5·9 (2·9 to 8·9)* −9·9 (−12·1 to −7·6)* Unintentional firearm injuries 2333·0 (2074·5 to 2625·1) 13·4 (12·4 to 14·4)* −6·3 (−7·1 to −5·6)* 93·2 (65·4–126·2) 4·1 (0·6 to 7·4)* −12·6 (−15·0 to −10·1)* Unintentional suffocation 9759·3 (8142·5 to 11 916·9) 9·7 (5·5 to 13·9)* −7·7 (−10·3 to −5·1)* 353·7 (245·8–480·3) 11·4 (8·6 to 14·0)* −6·8 (−8·6 to −5·1)* Other exposure to mechanical forces 171 490·1 (157 821·0 to 185 364·4) 14·1 (13·2 to 14·9)* −3·2 (−3·7 to −2·6)* 3133·9 (2172·1–4356·6) 5·4 (2·2 to 8·5)* −10·1 (−12·6 to −7·7)* Adverse effects of medical treatment 11 158·6 (8773·5 to 13 610·2) 3·1 (1·3 to 4·9)* −13·9 (−15·4 to −12·4)* 1487·4 (926·9–2223·0) 3·1 (1·3 to 4·9)* −13·9 (−15·4 to −12·4)* Animal contact 34 049·7 (30 774·2 to 37 569·0) 9·4 (8·0 to 10·6)* −6·6 (−7·5 to −5·9)* 1100·9 (763·8–1486·9) 4·6 (3·0 to 6·2)* −8·8 (−10·0 to −7·5)* Venomous animal contact 14 680·7 (13 173·4 to 16 375·1) 13·2 (12·2 to 14·2)* −3·6 (−4·4 to −2·8)* 820·7 (558·1–1117·5) 5·3 (3·7 to 7·1)* −7·8 (−9·2 to −6·2)* Non-venomous animal contact 19 369·1 (16  794·5 to 22 306·5) 6·7 (4·8 to 8·2)* −8·8 (−10·1 to −7·7)* 280·3 (187·2–410·5) 2·5 (0·2 to 4·7)* −11·4 (−13·1 to −9·8)* Foreign body 32 345·9 (28 877·3 to 36 026·4) 15·7 (14·1 to 17·1)* −1·9 (−2·9 to −1·1)* 1263·3 (899·4–1722·5) 3·7 (0·2 to 7·5)* −10·9 (−13·6 to −8·1)* Pulmonary aspiration and foreign body in airway 13 351·2 (11 069·0 to 16 798·7) 15·5 (12·5 to 18·4)* −1·6 (−3·6 to 0·2) 690·2 (477·9–973·1) −0·2 (−4·1 to 4·5) −14·0 (−17·2 to −10·4)* Foreign body in eyes 1007·2 (444·0 to 1 593·4) 16·3 (15·0 to 18·2)* 1·4 (0·8 to 1·9)* 56·2 (24·0–100·6) 15·2 (13·8 to 16·7)* 0·5 (−0·9 to 1·3) Foreign body in other body part 17 987·4 (15 874·1 to 20 237·9) 15·9 (14·9 to 17·0)* −2·3 (−3·0 to −1·6)* 517·0 (364·4–713·3) 8·0 (5·5 to 10·6)* −7·7 (−9·6 to −5·8)* Environmental heat and cold exposure 61 942·3 (56 211·9 to 68 761·8) 15·9 (15·4 to 16·5)* −4·2 (−4·6 to −3·8)* 2657·1 (1861·7–3636·2) 6·4 (3·7 to 9·4)* −11·0 (−13·0 to −8·9)* Other unintentional injuries 161 441·6 (147 971·3 to 176 204·3) 4·7 (4·0 to 5·3)* −13·7 (−14·1 to −13·3)* 5753·6 (3913·1–8024·1) 0·4 (−1·4 to 2·1) −16·7 (−17·8 to −15·7)* Self-harm and interpersonal violence 24 083·0 (22 279·7 to 25 744·4) 15·2 (14·6 to 15·7)* −5·5 (−5·9 to −5·2)* 1077·5 (762·7–1 448·2) 1·9 (−1·6 to 5·8) −15·1 (−17·8 to −12·1)* Self-harm 6358·6 (5682·1 to 7154·5) 15·2 (14·5 to 15·8)* −6·2 (−6·7 to −5·8)* 332·7 (232·4–446·9) 0·9 (−2·1 to 4·5) −15·9 (−18·4 to −13·2)* Interpersonal violence 17 724·4 (16 186·6 to 19 268·4) 15·2 (14·5 to 15·9)* −5·3 (−5·7 to −4·8)* 744·8 (521·9–1007·3) 2·4 (−1·4 to 6·4) −14·6 (−17·5 to −11·6)* Assault by firearm 1043·6 (900·8 to 1213·2) 16·1 (14·9 to 17·3)* −4·9 (−5·8 to −4·2)* 46·5 (32·4–64·9) 4·6 (0·7 to 8·1)* −13·2 (−16·1 to −10·5)* Assault by sharp object 4019·5 (3330·4 to 4668·1) 12·5 (11·5 to 13·6)* −7·0 (−7·7 to −6·3)* 123·4 (84·8–168·7) −6·4 (−11·4 to −0·9)* −21·1 (−24·8 to −16·8)* Assault by other means 12 661·3 (11 425·5 to 14 018·9) 16·0 (15·2 to 16·8)* −4·7 (−5·3 to −4·3)* 574·8 (404·0–782·2) 4·3 (0·8 to 8·0)* −13·3 (−15·9 to −10·4)* Forces of nature, war, and legal intervention 88 991·7 (65 131·0 to 116 786·1) 28·8 (18·4 to 40·5)* 11·7 (2·9 to 21·7)* 2820·2 (1921·3 to 3850·1) 23·4 (1·7 to 47·8)* 7·2 (−11·4 to 28·3) Exposure to forces of nature 25 293·7 (16 193·6 to 37 658·7) 13·5 (−2·1 to 32·2) −1·3 (−14·5 to 14·1) 796·9 (541·4 to 1091·4) −27·4 (−43·2 to −6·2)* −35·9 (−49·6 to −17·8)* Collective violence and legal intervention 63 697·9 (45 248·7–83 186·4) 36·1 (20·9–54·9)* 18·1 (5·1–34·4)* 2023·3 (1303·8–2903·0) 70·5 (33·0–118·3)* 47·1 (15·3–88·8)* Impairments .. .. .. .. .. .. Anaemia 2 359 107·9 (2 349 938·3 to 2 369 065·8) 4·0 (3·5 to 4·5)* −7·1 (−7·6 to −6·7)* 77 876·7 (52 436·9 to 111 360·0) −0·7 (−2·0 to 0·4) −10·2 (−11·2 to −9·2)* Developmental intellectual disability 152 664·0 (113 511·5 to 190 764·1) 12·6 (12·2 to 13·0)* 2·0 (1·6 to 2·4)* 16 875·1 (12 072·6 to 22 373·1) 15·0 (13·4 to 17·0)* 3·8 (2·2 to 5·7)* Epilepsy 39 160·5 (34 270·8 to 43 685·8) 15·8 (12·6 to 18·9)* 3·5 (0·5 to 6·4)* 11 770·0 (8 578·8 to 15 276·3) 5·8 (0·5 to 11·0)* −4·9 (−9·8 to −0·1)* Guillain-Barré syndrome 35·0 (28·6 to 42·1) 17·0 (14·7 to 19·5)* −0·2 (−0·9 to 0·4) 10·4 (6·6 to 15·0) 17·0 (14·7 to 19·5) −0·2 (−0·9 to 0·4) Hearing loss 1 330 902·9 (1 261 401·0 to 1 397 100·6) 26·0 (25·2 to 26·7)* 0·9 (0·5 to 1·3)* 46 183·1 (31 566·7 to 63 209·9) 23·6 (22·1 to 25·1)* 0·6 (−0·4 to 1·5) Heart failure 40 048·6 (38 613·2 to 41 418·2) 32·3 (31·6 to 33·1)* 0·3 (−0·2 to 0·8) 6199·4 (4700·7 to 7785·5) 33·2 (31·7 to 34·6)* 1·1 (0·1 to 2·0)* Infertility 113 113·8 (93 429·4–136 497·5) 21·1 (17·6–24·5)* 8·0 (4·9–10·9)* 752·4 (327·7–1543·8) 19·9 (16·8–22·7)* 7·0 (4·3–9·4)* Pelvic inflammatory disease 754·1 (652·8 to 878·7) 1·1 (0·1 to 2·1)* −12·0 (−12·7 to −11·2)* 99·9 (67·8 to 138·6) 1·3 (−0·7 to 3·4) −11·7 (−13·4 to −10·0)* Vision loss 939 580·2 (905 009·5 to 974 112·3) 22·4 (21·2 to 23·6)* −0·4 (−1·3 to 0·4) 24 462·7 (16 954·9 to 34 455·1) 22·4 (21·6 to 23·3)* −0·2 (−0·8 to 0·3)
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